Genetic Resources and Breeding Research Projects (74)

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Supply of planting materials to farmers

Funded by CRUK and Bioversity International/CGIAR/Mars/CRA Ltd
(2012 to 2016)
Researchers: B. Laliberte, M. End, S. Weise
The review, coordinated by Bioversity International, presents an impartial, evidence-based review of cacao propagation methods, to serve as a basis for the assessment and implementation of strategies for providing farmers with quality planting materials, adapted to current and future needs (cultural, institutional, technical, environmental and financial). It describes the various propagation methods available for the production and supply of large numbers of cacao plants to growers. It is hoped that the result of the efforts of the key authors provides a basis to build on for case-specific recommendations. As the supply of new improved planting material to farmers is at the heart of improving cocoa productivity and modernizing the crop, we hope that the information in the review will make its way into national cocoa plans, and help to make cocoa farming more attractive and more sustainable. The full review is available from http://www.bioversityinternational.org/e-library/publications/detail/supplying-new-cocoa-planting-material-to-farmers-a-review-of-propagation-methodologies/

Physiological Characterisation of the International Cocoa Quarantine Centre Germplasm Collection

Funded by CRUK
» University of Reading
(2015 to 2016)
Researchers: Dr. Andrew Daymond/Prof. Paul Hadley, Dr. Fiona Lahive
A 16 month post-doctoral project to screen the accessions in the International Cocoa Quarantine Centre (ICQC) at the University of Reading for traits which are likely to affect their yield potential and stress resilience with a view to identifying interesting materials for priority inclusion in breeding work.

Sustained Prosperity from Improved Cocoa Cultivars: The Mabang Megakarya Selection Programme (MMSP) 2012-2016

Funded by CRUK and COCOBOD, Embassy of the Netherlands, Accra, Mondelez International, Mars, GCGRA
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2013 to 2016)
Researcher: Mr. E.Nsiah
The supply of improved planting materials to farmers is a vital component in ensuring the sustainability of cocoa production. A public/private partnership between Ghana Cocoa Board (COCOBOD), Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to Ghana, GCGRA and its sister organisation CR(UK) Ltd, Mars and Mondelez International will contribute over €4million to the continuation of a major breeding programme, the Mabang Megakarya Selection Programme (MMSP) over four years. MMSP’s work will lead to Ghana’s seed gardens supplying farmers with new varieties which have been tested for their performance in an area affected by the devastating Megakarya form of Black Pod disease. In the longer term it will also develop improved clonal varieties which will be at the heart of the modernisation of cocoa production.

Mabang Megakarya Selection Programme (MMSP) - Consolidation Phase.

Funded by GCGRA and CRIG/COCOBOD, CRUK Ltd, The Embassy of the Netherlands in Accra, Mars, Mondelez International
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2013 to 2016)
Researcher: Mr. E.Nsiah
The supply of improved planting materials to farmers is a vital component in ensuring the sustainability of cocoa production. A public/private partnership between Ghana Cocoa Board (COCOBOD), Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to Ghana, GCGRA and its sister organisation CR(UK) Ltd, Mars and Mondelez International will contribute over €4million to the continuation of a major breeding programme, the Mabang Megakarya Selection Programme (MMSP) over four years. MMSP’s work will lead to Ghana’s seed gardens supplying farmers with new varieties which have been tested for their performance in an area affected by the devastating Megakarya form of Black Pod disease. In the longer term it will also develop improved clonal varieties which will be at the heart of the modernisation of cocoa production.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2013-2015

Funded by CRA
» University of Reading
(Ongoing project; started in 2013)
Researcher: Prof Paul Hadley/Dr. Chris Turnbull
The London cocoa trade, through CRA Ltd., continues to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD is freely available through its website (www.icgd.reading.ac.uk)and is also distributed on CD-ROM to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. The project is currently funded by ICE Futures Europe and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1999

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1999 to 1999)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
This long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International) and is supported by the London cocoa trade. The ICGD is freely available in computerised and printed formats to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. It has become a key resource for the cocoa research community and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

Primitive Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1992

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1992 to 1992)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley, Dr. Michelle End
The International Cocoa Germplasm Database project continued to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources and establish itself as a key resource for those interested in cocoa breeding and genetic resources. It continued to build links with the cocoa genebanks and research institutes who contributed the data on the characteristics of their accessions and developed software to help make this information more easily accessible. The project has continued and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

Primitive Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1990-1991.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1991 to 1991)
Researchers: Paul Hadley, Michelle End
In the third year of this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources, a printed version of the database was released to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. The database became known as the International Cocoa Germplasm Database and further information on the origins, current locations and characteristics of cocoa clones was collated into a computerised database in collaboration with cocoa research institutes, universities and individuals working in the area of cocoa genetic resources. The project has continued and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Quarantine Centre at the University of Reading (ICQC,R)

Funded by CRA and USDA
» University of Reading
(2016 to 2021)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley, Dr. Andrew Daymond, Dr. Andy Wetten
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

International Cocoa Quarantine Centre, University of Reading 2011-2016

Funded by CRA and USDA
» University of Reading
(Ongoing project; started in 2011)
Researchers: Prof. P.Hadley, Dr. Andrew Daymond
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

International Cocoa Quarantine Centre, University of Reading 2008-2011

Funded by CRA and USDA
» University of Reading
(2008 to 2011)
Researchers: Prof. P.Hadley, Dr. Andrew Daymond
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 2005-08

Funded by BCCCA and Masterfoods/USDA
» University of Reading
(2005 to 2008)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 2002-05

Funded by BCCCA and Masterfoods
» University of Reading
(2002 to 2005)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1999-2002

Funded by BCCCA and Masterfoods (from 2001)
» University of Reading
(1999 to 2002)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1996-99

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1996 to 1999)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1993-96

Funded by BCCCA and Malaysian Cocoa Board
» University of Reading
(1993 to 1996)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1990-93

Funded by BCCCA and Malaysian Cocoa Board
» University of Reading
(1990 to 1993)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2008-2010

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2008 to 2010)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley, Dr. Chris Turnbull
The London cocoa trade, NYSE-LIFFE, continues to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD is freely available through its website and is also distributed on CD-ROM to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. The project is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd. In this phase of the project, the ICGD was re-structured to a MYSQL/PHP platform to facilitate updating and improve data accessibility.Data on half-sibs and genetic groups has been added and the way the ICGD deals with synonyms has been improved to allow users to use the clone names that they are most familiar with. Development of a tool to allow ranking of accessions based on characteristics including genetic diversity has continued. The field guide "A Visual Aid to Identifying Widely Distributed Cacao Accessions’ was published using data from the ICGD as part of the CFC/Bioversity Cocoa Genetic Resources project.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2006-2008

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2006 to 2008)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley, Dr. Chris Turnbull
The London cocoa trade, through BCCCA/CRA Ltd., continues to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD is freely available through its website and is also distributed on CD-ROM to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. The project is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD)2004-2006

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2004 to 2006)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Caroline Ford, Dr. Chris Turnbull
The London cocoa trade, through BCCCA/CRA Ltd., continues to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD is freely available through its website and is also distributed on CD-ROM to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. The project is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2011-2013

Funded by BCCCA/CRA (NYSE LIFFE contribution)
» University of Reading
(2011 to 2013)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley, Dr. Chris Turnbull
The London cocoa trade (NYSE -LIFFE), through CRA Ltd., continued to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The project aims to support the continuing breeding and conservation efforts by facilitating access to information on the origins, current location, characteristics of cocoa genetic resources. Although the ICGD is now primarily an online database, providing greater accessibility and allowing more rapid dissemination of new information, a CD-ROM version is available and is especially useful in areas with slow or unreliable internet access. Over 160 copies of ICGD 2012 (released in May 2012), were distributed to over 100 locations around the globe, and were also freely available at the 17th International Cocoa Research Conference (ICRC) in Cameroon (October 2012). Data has continued to be added to ICGD from a wide variety of sources, such as journal articles and conference proceedings, as well as data supplied directly from research institutes. User feedback has driven the continued development of ICGD, resulting in several new features being implemented that improve the search routines and the way in which data is presented. The Genetic Resource Evaluation and Selection Tool (GRest) has also been developed to work alongside ICGD. It impartially and unambiguously ranks accessions, based on information on the traits possessed by individuals and the genetic diversity they represent, allowing selection criteria to be based on specific local requirements. GRest is available on both the online and CD versions of ICGD. As the principle resource for cocoa germplasm information, ICGD has a central role outlined in ‘A Global Strategy for the Conservation and Use of Cacao Genetic Resources, as the Foundation for a Sustainable Cocoa Economy’, recently published by CacaoNet (the global network for cacao genetic resources). Two presentations about ICGD, the data it contains, and how it fits in the Global Strategy for the Conservation and Use of Cacao Genetic Resources, were presented at the 17th International Cocoa Research Conference (ICRC) organised by COPAL. An overview of the GRest program was also presented at the INGENIC workshop that followed the Conference.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2002-2004

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2002 to 2004)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Caroline Ford
The London cocoa trade, through BCCCA/CRA Ltd., continues to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD is freely available through its website and is also distributed on CD-ROM to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. The project is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2000-2002

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2000 to 2002)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End (to end Nov 2000)
The London cocoa trade, through BCCCA/CRA Ltd., continues to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD is freely available through its website and is also distributed on CD-ROM to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. During this phase of the project ICGD Online (www.icgd.rdg.ac.uk) has been considerably improved with the inclusion of new links to view photographs, full references, research station addresses and information on the origins of group names. New pages have been added that allow microsatellite data to be viewed and compared (currently exact matches and possible parents). The project is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1988-89

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1988 to 1989)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1987-88

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1987 to 1988)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1989-90

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1989 to 1990)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Cocoa Research Centre

Funded by CRA and Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, CIRAD and a number of other supporters
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 2010)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
Core support for the Cocoa Research Centre to conserve, characterise and utilise the germplasm held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad.

Sustained Prosperity from Improved Cocoa Cultivars: The Mabang Megakarya Selection Programme (MMSP) 2012-2016

Funded by COCOBOD, Embassy of the Netherlands, Accra, Mondelez International, Mars, GCGRA & CRUK
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2012 to 2016)
The supply of improved planting materials to farmers is a vital component in ensuring the sustainability of cocoa production. A public/private partnership between Ghana Cocoa Board (COCOBOD), Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to Ghana, GCGRA and its sister organisation CR(UK) Ltd, Mars and Mondelez International will contribute over €4million to the continuation of a major breeding programme, the Mabang Megakarya Selection Programme (MMSP) over four years. MMSP’s work will lead to Ghana’s seed gardens supplying farmers with new varieties which have been tested for their performance in an area affected by the devastating Megakarya form of Black Pod disease. In the longer term it will also develop improved clonal varieties which will be at the heart of the modernisation of cocoa production.

Joint Modelling of Spatial Variation and Competition Effects in Cocoa Breeding Trials Using Generalised Linear Mixed Models

Funded by CRUK
» University of Reading
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2011 to 2015)
Researcher: Dr. F.Baksh & Dr. E. Allan
This PhD project involved the application of modern statistical techniques to the design and analysis of cocoa breeding programmes and field experiments. Frank Owusu Ansah published his thesis entitled "Methodology For Joint Modelling Of Spatial Variation And Competition Effects In The Analysis Of Varietal Selection Trials" in 2015. The model was developed by extending an existing model by relaxing the assumptions about the competition component to allow for more realistic options and to cope with multiple tree plot layout while simultaneously modelling fertility effects. Autoregressive and cubic spline terms were used to model the competition and fertility effects respectively. An evaluation of the new model indicated its relative superiority in giving efficient and reliable conclusions for both plot and tree level analyses. The comparative advantage of this model over existing methods is demonstrated using data from Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana

Verification of Genotypes in the ICG,T by Genetic Fingerprinting.

Funded by CRA* and GORTT, CIRAD
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1992)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the work at cocoa research work in Trinidad since the 1940's. CRA Ltd and the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago are jointly supporting the core activites at the Cocoa Research Unit including the ongoing programme to ensure that all the replicates of each accession in the ICG,T are correctly identified using genetic fingerprinting techniques. This work is being undertaken in cooperation with a CIRAD scientist based at CRU and with USDA ARS scientists. There is considerable movement of material into and out of the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T), which could potentially result in the misplacement of cocoa material. As overseer of this important cocoa germplasm collection, CRU is systematically checking accessions in the ICG,T, to confirm the identity of already established accessions and therefore avoid mistakes in identity of material used in research, and material distributed to the cocoa community world-wide. The increasing transfer of material among different countries necessitates careful attention to accurate labelling if research objectives are to be met, and results are to be trusted and transferable.

Morphological Characterisation of the Genotypes in the ICG,T

Funded by CRA* and GORTT,CIRAD
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1983)
Researchers: Mrs. F. Bekele, Prof. P. Umaharan
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the work at cocoa research work in Trinidad since the 1940's. CRA Ltd and the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago are jointly supporting the core activites at the Cocoa Research Unit including the on-going programme to collate and analyse data on leaf, flower and pod characteristics from accessions in the ICG,T to ensure clonal identity, study genetic diversity and facilitate selection of promising accessions for further evaluation.

Biochemical Characterisation/Diversity Studies of the Genotypes in the ICG,T.

Funded by CRA* and GORTT, CIRAD,USDA
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1980)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the work at cocoa research work in Trinidad since the 1940's. CRA Ltd and the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago are jointly supporting the core activites at the Cocoa Research Unit including the ongoing programme to use genetic fingerprinting and other biochemical marker techniques to study genetic diversity and prioritise accessions for conservation and/or further evaluation. This work is being undetaken in conjunction with scientists from CIRAD and USDA.

Conservation of Cocoa Germplasm in the ICG,T.

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1946)
Researcher: Prof. P.Umaharan
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the work at cocoa research work in Trinidad since the 1940's. CRA Ltd and the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago are jointly supporting the core activites at the Cocoa Research Unit including maintaining the largest and most genetically diverse field collection of internationally available germplasm as a resource for the global cocoa community.

Collection/Distribution of Germplasm in the ICG,T.

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1940)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the work at cocoa research work in Trinidad since the 1940's. CRA Ltd and the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago are jointly supporting the core activites at the Cocoa Research Unit including the introduction of new germplasm to ICG,T and the preparation of micropropagated materials and budwood for distribution, principally via ICQC,R.

Germplasm enhancement for Witches' Broom and Black Pod Resistance.

Funded by CRA* and CFC and other co-financiers
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1998)
Researchers: Dr. D. Iwaro, Dr. D. Butler
Developing populations with enhanced resistance to major diseases using genetically divergent parental materials.

Supply of High Quality Cocoa Seeds to Ghanaian Cocoa Farmers.

Funded by CRUK and CRIG
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
» Rob Lockwood
(2008 to 2012)
A joint project with CRIG to analyse and interpret historic and more recent data from CRIG's breeding programme with a view to selecting types for further evaluation in seed garden and MMSP trials.

Evaluation of predictive tests for resistance to black pod disease in Ghana

Funded by GCGRA
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2010 to 2011)
Researchers: Dr. Boamah Adomako, Dr. F. Amoah, Dr. Lockwood (Advisor)
A research project in Ghana to test whether the leaf disc and/or detached pod tests for black pod resistance can be used to predict the rank order of disease incidence of the 16 clones in a completed clone trial and of the general combining abilities (gcas) of 5 and 10 parents in two completed field trials.

An Investigation in to the Effects of Vegetative Propagation and Juvenility on Cocoa Vigour and Implications for Breeding Strategies, Nursery Management and Distribution of Genetic Resources.

Funded by CRA* and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock)
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of Reading
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2007 to 2011)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley, Dr. P. Tricker
A post-graduate research project to investigate the effects of juvenility, reinvigoration and disruption to the flow of nutrients and water at the graft union on budding success and growth rates of budded plants with a view to understanding why seedling plants perform better than genetically identical plants derived from them.

Support for CacaoNet.

Funded by CRA* and Bioversity, Mars, USDA, WCF
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» Bioversity International
(Ongoing project; started in 2005)
Support towards meetings and other activities associated with the development of a global strategy for the conservation and use of cacao genetic resources.

Support for INGENIC.

Funded by CRA* and Bioversity, Mars, USDA
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» Bioversity International
(Ongoing project; started in 1994)
Support towards INGENIC newsletters, website and workshops which disseminate research findings on cocoa genetics and breeding to cocoa community.

Safeguarding the ICG,T.

Funded by CRA* and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock)
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2006 to 2010)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
A co-funded project with the Government of the Netherlands to carry out a major re-propagation programme and install reservoirs and an irrigation system to improve the security of germplasm held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad.

Field Establishment of Cocoa Clones through the Improvement of Agro-ecological Conditions.

Funded by CRA* and CFC and other co-financiers
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of Reading
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2005 to 2010)
Researchers: Prof. P. Hadley, Dr. A.J. Daymond
A PhD research project to evaluate the effects of shade, mulch and irrigation on the growth, development and physiology of different varieties of cocoa under field and controlled greenhouse conditions.

Co-financed activities as part of ‘Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement: a Participatory Approach’ (CFC/ICCO/IPGRI/Bioversity).

Funded by CRA* and CFC and other co-financiers
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» International Cocoa Organization
» Bioversity International
» Common Fund for Commodities
(2004 to 2010)
Co-financing and counterpart funding for activities at Cocoa Research Unit (Trinidad) and the Univ. of Reading which formed part of this global project which involved 14 institutions in West Africa, the Americas, SE Asia and Europe.

Cacaonet base collection.

Funded by CRUK
» University of Reading
(2009 to 2009)
Researchers: Prof. P.Hadley, Dr. N.Cryer
A short project to collate genetic fingerprinting data from various sources and, in collaboration with scientists at USDA, CIRAD and Mars, to carry out an analysis to prioritise the accessions to conserve in the CacaoNet Global Strategic collection.

Securing a Sustainable Future for the International Cocoa Quarantine Centre through the Installation of Energy Saving Measures.

Funded by CRA* and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock)
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of Reading
(2008 to 2009)
Researchers: Dr. A. Daymond, Prof. P.Hadley
A jointly funded project with the Government of the Netherlands (Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme) to install energy saving thermal screens and refurbish the quarantine facilities. These measures have resulted in an energy saving of some 40% compared to previous years. The thermal screens also permit better shade/humidity control and result in improved plant growth.

Mabang Megakarya Selection Programme (MMSP).

Funded by GCGRA and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock) and CRIG/COCOBOD
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2005 to 2009)
Researcher: Mr. E.Nsiah
A major new breeding programme with the objective of new planting materials with high yield in the presence of damaging pests and diseases, and which can deliver fermented and dried cocoa beans of traditional Ghanaian quality.

The Mabang Megakarya Selection Programme (MMSP): Establishment Phase

Funded by CRIG/COCOBOD, GCGRA and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock)
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2005 to 2009)
A major new breeding programme with the objective of new planting materials with high yield in the presence of damaging pests and diseases, and which can deliver fermented and dried cocoa beans of traditional Ghanaian quality.

Study of accessions in Trinidad

Funded by CRUK
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 2007)
Researcher: Tony Lass
A research placement for an undergraduate studentship for a student from University of Bath at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad. The project involved determing the factors affecting conversion of wet weight to dry weight in cocoa, as well as training in vegetative propagation, small scale fermentationa and flavour evaluation techniques.

A short project to study the genetic diversity and structure of wild cacao populations using microsatellite markers.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of the West Indies
» University of Reading
(2004 to 2004)
Researchers: Prof. M. Wilkinson, Dr. D. Butler, Prof. P. Umaharan, Dr. N. Cryer
A post-doctoral research project to investigate the genetic diversity of 17 georeferenced wild cocoa populations using a novel approach to select microsatellite markers.

Assessment of the Genetic Fidelity of Somatic Embryo-derived Cocoa.

Funded by CRUK
» University of Reading
(2001 to 2004)
Researcher: Dr. A. Wetten
A PhD research project which set out to examine variation at the genetic level in somatic embryos produced using a tissue culture technique. This project constituted the first large-scale molecular characterisation of changes that occur during primary and secondary somatic embryogenesis in cocoa. The novel techniques developed during the project allow a rapid assessment of variation at both genetic and epi-genetic levels. The effects of time in culture, embryo origin, and genotype on somaclonal variation were assessed and this enabled recommendations to be made on the most appropriate procedures to reduce the risk of mutation/variation in somatic embryo production.

Determination of Desirable Cocoa Germplasm Characteristics for Optimal Yield and Quality.

Funded by CRUK
» University of Reading
(2001 to 2004)
Researchers: P. Hadley, A.Daymond
A post-doctoral research project to investigate the responses of different varieties of cocoa to changes in temperature, light levels and water stress under greenhouse and field conditions with a view to matching varieties to local growing conditions.

Intensive Genetic Characterisation of Diverse Cocoa Germplasm.

Funded by CRUK
» University of Reading
(2000 to 2004)
Researcher: Dr. M. Wilkinson
A post-graduate research project to develop a new genetic fingerprinting technique based on ISSR-PCR which could be used to distinguish large numbers of closely related accessions and link genetic markers with traits of interest to breeders.

Co-financed activities as part of ‘Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation: A Global Approach’ (CFC/ICCO/IPGRI)

Funded by BCCCA and CFC and other co-financiers
» International Cocoa Organization
» Bioversity International
» Common Fund for Commodities
(1998 to 2004)
Co-financing and counterpart funding for activities at Cocoa Research Unit (Trinidad) and the Univ. of Reading, which formed part of this global project which involved 11 institutions from West Africa, the Americas, SE Asia and Europe.

Farmer Based Elite Germplasm Identification and Multiplication in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana.

Funded by GCGRA
» Centre National de Recherche Agronomique
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2001 to 2003)
Researcher: Abdoulaye Traore
A two year research project which established somatic embryogenesis technology at both CNRA and CRIG and used this to propagate promising selections which had been identified by farmers.

Combined Fingerprinting and Tagging in Cocoa.

Funded by CRUK
» University of Reading
(2000 to 2003)
Researchers: Dr. M. Wilkinson, Dr. Nicholas Cryer, Dr. Yvonne Charters
The main objective of this project was to fingerprint all material held in the Reading Intermediate Quarantine Collection and to generate a SNP-based marker system that is fully transferable, related to target genes, and could be applied with minimal equipment. The programme of work was adjusted to take account of a USDA initiated programme to use the microsatellites generated at CIRAD to fingerprint Germplasm collections in the Americas. Allelic standards were created for each locus to replace the generic standards previously used to ensure transferability of results between laboratories. A total of 89 SNPs were identified across divergent material and these generated 39 CAPS markers across 30 loci. Some of these markers were used to screen large numbers of genotypes.

Transfer of LCTAP germplasm.

Funded by BCCCA and INIAP
» University of the West Indies
» INIAP
(1995 to 2001)
The London Cocoa Trade, in conjunction with BCCCA and INIAP, supported an expedition to systematically collect wild cacao plants in Ecuador. Although some of this germplasm was transferred, via quarantine, to international collections as it was collected in the 1980's, there are many accessions which only survive in the field genebank in Ecuador. BCCCA/CRA Ltd. supported an initiative to re-propagate these ageing trees to re-establish them in the main INIAP genebank in preparation for transfer to the ICG,T.

Collecting and Genetic Fingerprinting of Guyana Cocoa Material Using ISSR-PCR.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of the West of England
» University of Reading
(1999 to 1999)
Researcher: Prof.M.Wilkinson
A short project to study the levels of genetic diversity present in material collected by the Guyana Cocoa Initiative from uncultivated sources and also to genetically fingerprint the materials held in the Timehri Genebank.

Guyana Cocoa Research Initiative

Funded by BCCCA
» University of the West of England
(1995 to 1999)
Researcher: Dr. M. Johnston
Support to allow students to participate in summer expeditions to collect wild cocoa material in Guyana and establish it in the National Genebank at Timehri. An associated genetic fingerprinting study showed that some of the material collected was very different to most other accessions held in international genebanks.

Barbados Quarantine Station

Funded by BCCCA
» University of the West Indies
(1980 to 1998)
BCCCA used to provide support for a greenhouse facility in Barbados to quarantine materials entering the ICG,T. Since 1998 this function has been undertaken by the International Cocoa Quarantine Centre, University of Reading.

Identification of True-breeding lines in cocoa

Funded by CRUK
» University of Reading
(1997 to 1997)
Researcher: Dr. M.J. Wilkinson
A short project to evaluate the potential of the Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR)-PCR technique to assess levels of homozygosity/heterozygosity in cocoa germplasm.

Microsatellite Analysis

Funded by CRUK
» University of Reading
(1996 to 1997)
Researchers: Dr. A. Culham, Dr. M.J. Wilkinson, Dr. P. Hadley
A short project to evaluate the potential of the Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR)-PCR technique for the genetic characterisation of cocoa germplasm.

Collecting Cacao Germplasm in Belize

Funded by CRA*
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1994 to 1997)
Researchers: Dr. D. Butler, Dr. V. Mooleedhar
A series of short expeditions in 1994, 1996 and 1997 to prospect for wild cocoa in the forest areas of the Maya Mountains in Belize and to establish this material in the Barbados Quarantine Facility for onwards transmission to the ICG,T

Photographs of the BAL Germplasm collection

Funded by BCCCA
» University of the West Indies
(1996 to 1996)
A short project to photograph the accessions in the BAL Plantations collection for inclusion in the ICGD.

High throughput screening for resistance

Funded by CRUK
» University of Reading
(1995 to 1995)
Researchers: M.J.Wilkinson, N.Cryer
Pyrosequencing is a new technique that allows for real time, simultaneous sequencing of DNA of up to 96 samples. The system has been widely used in medical genetics for screening for single base sequence mutations associated with genetically inherited disease but there has only been a couple of papers that use the technique on plants. The recently aquired pyrosequencer at The University of Reading will be used in a feasibility study to assess the value of the technique for large-scale screening of trees for valuable alleles of resistance genes

A study into the potential for enhancing productivity in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) through exploitation of physiological and genetic variation.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
» BAL Plantations Sdn Bhd
(1989 to 1992)
Researcher: Prof. P. Hadley

Primitive Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1989-1990

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1989 to 1990)
Researchers: Paul Hadley, Michelle End
This was an extension to a pilot project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The database of Primitive Cocoa Germplasm was expanded to include selected material and data on clone characteristics. The project has continued to develop and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

Primitive Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1988-1989

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1988 to 1989)
Researcher: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth
This was a pilot project to collate information on cocoa genetic resources with a view to making the information more widely available to the cocoa research community. The first output from the project, released as ‘The Catalogue of Primitive Cocoa Germplasm’ in 1989, was distributed in computerised form to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. It contained information on the origins and current distribution of cocoa germplasm collected from the wild since 1938.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1985-86

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1985 to 1986)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The initial project to transfer the Kew Cocoa Quarantine Collection to the University of Reading and establish a new quarantine service to ensure the safe movement of cocoa germplasm around the world - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1998

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1998 to 1998)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
This long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International) and is supported by the London cocoa trade. The ICGD is freely available in computerised and printed formats to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. It has become a key resource for the cocoa research community and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1997

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1997 to 1997)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
This long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International) and is supported by the London cocoa trade. The ICGD is freely available in computerised and printed formats to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. It has become a key resource for the cocoa research community and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1996

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1996 to 1996)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Michelle End
This long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International) and is supported by the London cocoa trade. The ICGD is freely available in computerised and printed formats to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. It has become a key resource for the cocoa research community and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1995

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1995 to 1995)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
The London cocoa trade, through BCCCA/CRA Ltd., continued to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources. In this phase of the project, a second MS-DOS version of the ICGD was distributed widely to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. The project has continued to develop and is now a key resource for the cocoa research community, funded by NYSE LIFFE and administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1994

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1994 to 1996)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
In 1994, the London cocoa trade agreed that its contributions to the BCCCA research programme should be used to support the International Cocoa Germplasm Database project which had been initiated in 1988 to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD was distributed in computerised form to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. [The project has continued and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd].

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1993

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1993 to 1993)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
The International Cocoa Germplasm Database project continued to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources and establish itself as a key resource for those interested in cocoa breeding and genetic resources. It continued to build links with the cocoa genebanks and research institutes who contributed the data on the characteristics of their accessions and developed software to help make this information more easily accessible. The project has continued and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.
"Improved planting material is a vital component of sustainable cocoa production"