Pest and Disease Research Projects (70)

+ View   Hide   Search >
 

Studies on vectors of CSSV

Funded by CRUK
» University of Reading
(2014 to 2015)
Researcher: Dr. A.Wetten
A six month study to improve our understanding of the basic processes underlying CSSV infection of cacao thereby supporting programmes for the control of the disease. The main objective of this project is to characterise the feeding behaviour of CSSV vector and non-vector mealybugs, and thus the factors that influence virus transmission using the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) technique but other potential vectors will also be studied.

Verticillium wilt in DR Congo and Uganda

Funded by CRUK and University of Aberdeen and Esco
» University of Reading
(2017 to 2019)
Researcher: Prof. Stephen Woodward and Dr. Eric Boa
This project sets out to gain a better understanding of Verticillium wilt and how it can managed in the cocoa growing area in DR Congo (DRC) and Uganda. A PhD student will be developing methods to detect the pathogen and assess its distribution and genetic diversity. The project is largely supported by the University of Aberdeen and Esco with a contribution from CRUK.

Sustained Prosperity from Improved Cocoa Cultivars: The Mabang Megakarya Selection Programme (MMSP) 2012-2016

Funded by CRUK and COCOBOD, Embassy of the Netherlands, Accra, Mondelez International, Mars, GCGRA
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2013 to 2016)
Researcher: Mr. E.Nsiah
The supply of improved planting materials to farmers is a vital component in ensuring the sustainability of cocoa production. A public/private partnership between Ghana Cocoa Board (COCOBOD), Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to Ghana, GCGRA and its sister organisation CR(UK) Ltd, Mars and Mondelez International will contribute over €4million to the continuation of a major breeding programme, the Mabang Megakarya Selection Programme (MMSP) over four years. MMSP’s work will lead to Ghana’s seed gardens supplying farmers with new varieties which have been tested for their performance in an area affected by the devastating Megakarya form of Black Pod disease. In the longer term it will also develop improved clonal varieties which will be at the heart of the modernisation of cocoa production.

CFC/ICCO Integrated Managements of Cocoa Pests and Pathogens in Africa: Controlling indigenous pests and diseases and prevent ing the introduction of exogenous ones.

Funded by CRA and CFC/ICCO/national research institutes and industry partners
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2013 to 2017)
Researcher: Dr. A. Cudjoe
The project aims to strengthen in-country and regional capacity for improved pest surveillance for prevention of spread, early detection, eradication and continued management of existing and invasive pests and pathogens. Crop and pest management strategies, as an integral part of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) is to be adopted as the main methodology to reduce crop losses by indigenous pests and diseases and to prevent the spread of both indigenous and exogenous pests and pathogens in the participating countries. Additionally, the project addresses the increasing threat of the spread of exogenous pests and pathogens to the African. The project will put in place measures to reduce the risk of the spread of exogenous pests and diseases such as Witches’ Broom (WB), Frosty Pod Rot (FP) - Moniliophthora roreri and Cocoa Pod Borer (CPB) - Conopomorpha cramerella through capacity building and awareness-raising.

Mabang Megakarya Selection Programme (MMSP) - Consolidation Phase.

Funded by GCGRA and CRIG/COCOBOD, CRUK Ltd, The Embassy of the Netherlands in Accra, Mars, Mondelez International
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2013 to 2016)
Researcher: Mr. E.Nsiah
The supply of improved planting materials to farmers is a vital component in ensuring the sustainability of cocoa production. A public/private partnership between Ghana Cocoa Board (COCOBOD), Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to Ghana, GCGRA and its sister organisation CR(UK) Ltd, Mars and Mondelez International will contribute over €4million to the continuation of a major breeding programme, the Mabang Megakarya Selection Programme (MMSP) over four years. MMSP’s work will lead to Ghana’s seed gardens supplying farmers with new varieties which have been tested for their performance in an area affected by the devastating Megakarya form of Black Pod disease. In the longer term it will also develop improved clonal varieties which will be at the heart of the modernisation of cocoa production.

Sustainable Cocoa Production in West Africa: Development of a Farmer-Participatory Integrated Crop Management Project

Funded by BCCCA
» CABI
(1993 to 1993)

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2017

Funded by CRA and GORTT
» University of the West Indies
(2017 to 2017)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
CRA Ltd continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for a visiting scientist from CIRAD ( M.ten Hoopen). In addition to this core support, CRU received funding from WCF for the project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease and research projects supported by various partners including Mars and Mondelez. CRC has continued in the training and research activities supported under the EU/ACP supported project "International Fine Cocoa Innovation Centre (IFCIC)" www.ifcic.centre, and research on the genetic basis of the incompatibility system, association mapping (with USDA-ARS), mitigation of cadmium contamination (supported by the ECA/CAOBISCO/FCC research fund).Other research has been organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2015 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance) and sensory evaluation studies.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2016

Funded by CRA and GORTT
» University of the West Indies
(2016 to 2016)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
CRA Ltd continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for a visiting scientist from CIRAD ( M.ten Hoopen). In addition to this core support, CRU received funding from WCF for the project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease and research projects supported by various partners including Mars and Mondelez. CRC has continued in the training and research activities supported under the EU/ACP supported project "International Fine Cocoa Innovation Centre (IFCIC)" www.ifcic.centre, and research on the genetic basis of the incompatibility system, association mapping (with USDA-ARS), mitigation of cadmium contamination (supported by the ECA/CAOBISCO/FCC research fund).Other research has been organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2015 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance) and sensory evaluation studies.

Sustained Prosperity from Improved Cocoa Cultivars: The Mabang Megakarya Selection Programme (MMSP) 2012-2016

Funded by COCOBOD, Embassy of the Netherlands, Accra, Mondelez International, Mars, GCGRA & CRUK
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2012 to 2016)
The supply of improved planting materials to farmers is a vital component in ensuring the sustainability of cocoa production. A public/private partnership between Ghana Cocoa Board (COCOBOD), Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to Ghana, GCGRA and its sister organisation CR(UK) Ltd, Mars and Mondelez International will contribute over €4million to the continuation of a major breeding programme, the Mabang Megakarya Selection Programme (MMSP) over four years. MMSP’s work will lead to Ghana’s seed gardens supplying farmers with new varieties which have been tested for their performance in an area affected by the devastating Megakarya form of Black Pod disease. In the longer term it will also develop improved clonal varieties which will be at the heart of the modernisation of cocoa production.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2015

Funded by CRA and GORTT
» University of the West Indies
(2015 to 2015)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
CRA Ltd continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for a visiting scientist from CIRAD (M. Boccara to Nov 2015, M.ten Hoopen Apr-Dec). In addition to this core support, CRU received funding from WCF for the project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease, UWI- Research Development and Innovation fund for detailed genetic and phenotypic studies of 500 genotypes from ICG,T, and research projects supported by various partners including Mars and Mondelez. CRC has continued in the training and research activities supported under the EU/ACP supported project "International Fine Cocoa Innovation Centre (IFCIC)" www.ifcic.centre, and research on the genetic basis of the incompatibility system, association mapping (with USDA-ARS), mitigation of cadmium contamination (supported by the ECA/CAOBISCO/FCC research fund).Other research has been organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2015 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance) and sensory evaluation studies.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2014

Funded by CRA and GORTT
» University of the West Indies
(2014 to 2014)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
CRA Ltd continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for a visiting scientist from CIRAD (M. Boccara). In addition to this core support, CRU received funding from WCF for the project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease, UWI- Research Development and Innovation fund for detailed genetic and phenotypic studies of 500 genotypes from ICG,T, and research projects supported by various partners including Mars and Mondelez. CRC initiated a new project supported by €2.574million from EU/ACP for a "International Fine Cocoa Innovation Centre (IFCIC)" www.ifcic.centre. New Projects on the incompatibility system and on association mapping were also initiated with support from USDA-ARS and on the mitigation of cadmium contamination thanks to support from the ECA/CAOBISCO/FCC research fund. Other research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2014 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance) and sensory evaluation studies.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2013

Funded by CRA and GORTT
» University of the West Indies
(2013 to 2013)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan

Proteomic Analysis of Witches' Broom Disease of Cocoa.

Funded by CRUK and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock)
» University of Aberystwyth
(2006 to 2010)
Researcher: Dr. G. Griffith & Dr. I. Scott
A post-graduate research project co-funded by the Government of the Netherlands and CRUK to study changes in host metabolism between resistant and susceptible varieties at the biochemical level. The research included the development of new method to quantify the amount of fungus in planta using a realtime quantitative PCR technique and studied the occurence and changes in proteins associated with different strains of fungus during the infection process.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2012

Funded by CRA and GORTT
» University of the West Indies
(2012 to 2012)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan

A West Africa-wide survey of Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus (CSSV) and associated viruses

Funded by CRUK
» University of Reading
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2010 to 2012)
Researchers: Wetten, A.
A post-doctoral research project to gain a better understanding of the distribution, movement and strain profile of the pathogens responsible for CSSV. A 454 sequencing approach will be used to rapidly and cost-effectively characterise CSSV strains in samples collected from sites throughout West Africa. Information will also be gathered on the extent of non-CSSV viruses and the role of indigenous plant species in the epidemiology of CSSV will be investigated with a view to improving the guidance given to farmers on managing the flora on and near to their farms to reduce the risks of CSSV spread

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2011

Funded by CRA and GORTT
» University of the West Indies
(2011 to 2011)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan

Evaluation of predictive tests for resistance to black pod disease in Ghana

Funded by GCGRA
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2010 to 2011)
Researchers: Dr. Boamah Adomako, Dr. F. Amoah, Dr. Lockwood (Advisor)
A research project in Ghana to test whether the leaf disc and/or detached pod tests for black pod resistance can be used to predict the rank order of disease incidence of the 16 clones in a completed clone trial and of the general combining abilities (gcas) of 5 and 10 parents in two completed field trials.

Safe Control of Mirid Pests in West Africa.

Funded by CRUK
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2007 to 2011)
Researcher: Dr.Roy Bateman
One of two linked post-graduate research projects to evaluate the potential of pheromones and biocontrol agents for integrated pest management and developing improved spray technologies for use with biocontrol agents.

Safe Control of Mirid Pests in West Africa.

Funded by CRUK
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2007 to 2011)
Researcher: Dr. R. Bateman
One of two linked post-graduate research projects to evaluate the potential of pheromones and biocontrol agents for integrated pest management and developing improved spray technologies for use with biocontrol agents. Joe Sarfo (CRIG, Ghana) experimented with different formulations of pheromones, trap design, height and density to optimise the methodology. Traps designed with low cost, locally available materials were found to be effective, though the best results were obtained using traps with a sticky outer surface in addition the standard sticky inner surface. Field experiments showed that although catches of male Sahlbergella singularis, the dominant mirid species in this region of Ghana, were significantly reduced in mass-trapped fields, pheromone trapping did not control mirid numbers or damage on cocoa, likely due to a combination of factors including the erratic airflow (sometimes absent) in canopies, patchy distribution of mirids within cocoa plantings, and their flight behaviour. However, the technology offers potential as a tool for monitoring mirid populations with a view to better targetting pest control by other means.

CSSV - strain independent screen.

Funded by CRUK
» University of Reading
» University of Aberystwyth
(2010 to 2010)
Researchers: Dr.A.Wetten, Dr.J. Allainguillaume
A post-doctoral research project to develop a sensitive and strain-independent molecular screen for CSSV and to assess its efficacy as part of the quarantine procedure. Geographical variability of CSSV isolates, and putative reservoirs of virus in non-cocoa species will also be investigated to improve our understanding of virus spread.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2010

Funded by CRA and GORTT
» University of the West Indies
(2010 to 2010)
Researchers: Dr. D. Sukha and Mrs F. Bekele (joint acting Directors, Jan-Feb), Prof. P. Umaharan (Mar-Dec)
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for a visiting scientist from CIRAD (M. Boccara). In addition to this core support, CRU received funding from WCF for the project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease and from USDA towards a collaborative activity also involving CIRAD to develop a DNA fingerprinting database for the cocoa collections of the Americas. CRU also received support from CFC and partner organisations for the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement; a Participatory Approach" for activities including the germplasm enhancement programme for resistance to Black Pod and Witches' Broom disease. CRU and CRA's application for support from the Dutch Sustainable Cocoa Fund (Dutch Buffer Stock Fund) for the project "Safeguarding the ICG,T: a global resource for the cocoa industry" was successful and the work to repropagate "at risk" germplasm and install irrigation at the site was initiated towards the end of the year. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2005 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Isolation and Characterisation of the Female Sex Pheromone of the Cocoa Stem Borer, Eulophonotus myrmeleon.

Funded by CRUK
» Natural Resources Institute
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2008 to 2010)
Researchers: Prof. D. Hall, Dr. S. Lowor, Dr. A Cudjoe
A research project to isolate the sex pheromone of the stem borer, an increasingly important pest in Ghana, for potential use in an integrated pest management system.

Isolation and Characterisation of the Female Sex Pheromone of Helopeltis theivora.

Funded by CRUK and PTPP London Sumatra
» Natural Resources Institute
» Lonsum
(2008 to 2010)
Researchers: Prof.D. Hall, Dr. S. Nelson
A research project, jointly supported with PTPP London Sumatra, to isolate the sex pheromone for the Helopeltis mirid which causes significant losses in SE Asia, for use in an integrated pest management system.

Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus - Molecular Study of Movement and Elimination.

Funded by CRUK
» University of Reading
(2006 to 2010)
Researcher: Dr. A. Wetten & Dr. J. Allainguillaume
A post-graduate research project to study the movement of CSSV virus asit moves through the host plant. The research demonstrated that although sections of DNA from CSSV appears to be transmitted from the mother plant to seeds, it is inactivated and does not result in CSSV infection in the seedling.

Understanding Seasonal Variability in Quality, Yield and Disease Resistance.

Funded by CRUK and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock)
» University of Reading
» University of Aberystwyth
(2005 to 2010)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley, Prof. Mike Wilkinson, Dr. Nicholas Cryer, Dr. Penny Tricker, Dr. Carlos Rodriguez-Lopez, Dr. Vladimir Bruhkin
A post-doctoral research project co-funded by the Government of the Netherlands to investigate the control of plant development and its response to environmental conditions and stresses caused by biotic and abiotic factors at the molecular level. This research contributed to our understanding of how regions and genes across the genome are differentially silenced or activated in response to environmental changes and developmental progression. Attention was focused on identifying environmentally sensitive regions of the genome that affect bean quality and yield potential. The results generated are being integrated with existing global genomics and transcriptomics research efforts to identify the particular genes involved and to define conditions for optimal gene expression. In the longer term, this work will assist in the breeding of clones that are well adapted to local conditions and will greatly improve the power of existing genetics research efforts.

Student placement study on lignification in the sclerotic layer in relation to CPB resistance.

Funded by CRUK
» University of Reading
(2009 to 2009)
Researchers: Dr. P. Hatcher, Prof. P. Hadley
A short project to enable an Indonesian student to carry out histological studies on the cocoa pod wall as part of his PhD studies at the Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia. The thickness of the lignified layer and its cell structure appear to be correlated with resistance to CPB, suggesting that this physical barrier is important in preventing emergence of the CPB larvae from the pod.

Dose-Transfer Efficiency of Cone Nozzles using fungicides against cocoa black pod disease as a model system.

Funded by CRUK
» The International Pesticide Application Research Consortium
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2009 to 2009)
Researcher: Dr. R. Bateman
An MSc student placement to test novel nozzle designs against standard spraying equipment in Ghana.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2009

Funded by CRA and GORTT
» University of the West Indies
(2009 to 2009)
Researchers: Dr. David Butler (Jan), Dr. D. Sukha and Mrs F. Bekele (joint acting Directors, Feb-Dec)
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for a visiting scientist from CIRAD (M. Boccara). In addition to this core support, CRU received funding from WCF for the project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease and from USDA towards a collaborative activity also involving CIRAD to develop a DNA fingerprinting database for the cocoa collections of the Americas. CRU also received support from CFC and partner organisations for the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement; a Participatory Approach" for activities including the germplasm enhancement programme for resistance to Black Pod and Witches' Broom disease. CRU and CRA's application for support from the Dutch Sustainable Cocoa Fund (Dutch Buffer Stock Fund) for the project "Safeguarding the ICG,T: a global resource for the cocoa industry" was successful and the work to repropagate "at risk" germplasm and install irrigation at the site was initiated towards the end of the year. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2009 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance) and sensory evaluation studies.

Mabang Megakarya Selection Programme (MMSP).

Funded by GCGRA and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock) and CRIG/COCOBOD
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2005 to 2009)
Researcher: Mr. E.Nsiah
A major new breeding programme with the objective of new planting materials with high yield in the presence of damaging pests and diseases, and which can deliver fermented and dried cocoa beans of traditional Ghanaian quality.

The Mabang Megakarya Selection Programme (MMSP): Establishment Phase

Funded by CRIG/COCOBOD, GCGRA and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock)
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2005 to 2009)
A major new breeding programme with the objective of new planting materials with high yield in the presence of damaging pests and diseases, and which can deliver fermented and dried cocoa beans of traditional Ghanaian quality.

Biocontrol of Cocoa Diseases (Student placements at CATIE).

Funded by CRUK
» CATIE
(2001 to 2009)
Researchers: U. Krauss, J.Crozier, G.M. ten Hoopen
Short placements for UK students to learn and develop fungal biocontrol techniques at a centre of expertise in CATIE, Costa Rica.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2008

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2008 to 2008)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
CRA Ltd took over the responsibility from BCCCA for support to CRU in September 2008 and continued to provide funding for the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for a visiting scientist from CIRAD (M. Boccara). In addition to this core support, CRU received funding from WCF for the project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease and from USDA towards a collaborative activity also involving CIRAD to develop a DNA fingerprinting database for the cocoa collections of the Americas. CRU also received support from CFC and partner organisations for the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement; a Participatory Approach" for activities including the germplasm enhancement programme for resistance to Black Pod and Witches' Broom disease. CRU and CRA's application for support from the Dutch Sustainable Cocoa Fund (Dutch Buffer Stock Fund) for the project "Safeguarding the ICG,T: a global resource for the cocoa industry" was successful and the work to repropagate "at risk" germplasm and install irrigation at the site was initiated towards the end of the year. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2005 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2007

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2007 to 2007)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was` received for a visiting scientist from CIRAD (M. Boccara/P. Deberdt). In addition to this core support, CRU received funding from WCF for the project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease and from USDA towards a collaborative activity also involving CIRAD to develop a DNA fingerprinting database for the cocoa collections of the Americas, and also from GORTT/USDA for association mapping studies of the ICG, T collection. CRU also received support from CFC and partner organisations for the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement; a Participatory Approach" for activities including the germplasm enhancement programme for resistance to Black Pod and Witches' Broom disease. CRU received support from the Dutch Sustainable Cocoa Fund (Dutch Buffer Stock Fund) and CRA for the project "Safeguarding the ICG,T: a global resource for the cocoa industry" which invovled re-propagating "at risk" germplasm and constructing irrigation reservoirs at the genebank site. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Projects for research on quality/post-harvest factors were also continued thanks to support from the Dutch Buffer Stock Fund (quality attributes of the ICS clones), and links with the University of Hamburg, University of Towson and the Dept of Chemistry at UWI. Activities in 2007 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2006

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2006 to 2006)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for a visiting scientist from CIRAD (M. Boccara/P. Deberdt). In addition to this core support, CRU received funding from WCF for the project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease and from USDA towards a collaborative activity also involving CIRAD to develop a DNA fingerprinting database for the cocoa collections of the Americas. CRU also received support from CFC and partner organisations for the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement; a Participatory Approach" for activities including the germplasm enhancement programme for resistance to Black Pod and Witches' Broom disease. CRU received support from the Dutch Sustainable Cocoa Fund (Dutch Buffer Stock Fund) and CRA for the project "Safeguarding the ICG,T: a global resource for the cocoa industry" which invovled re-propagating "at risk" germplasm and constructing irrigation reservoirs at the genebank site. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. New projects for research on quality/post-harvest factors were also initiated thanks to support from the Dutch Buffer Stock Fund and a link with the University of Hambury. Activities in 2006 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2005

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2005 to 2005)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for a visiting scientist from CIRAD (M. Boccara). In addition to this core support, CRU received funding from WCF for the project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease and from USDA towards a collaborative activity also involving CIRAD to develop a DNA fingerprinting database for the cocoa collections of the Americas. CRU also received support from CFC and partner organisations for the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement; a Participatory Approach" for activities including the germplasm enhancement programme for resistance to Black Pod and Witches' Broom disease. CRU and CRA's application for support from the Dutch Sustainable Cocoa Fund (Dutch Buffer Stock Fund) for the project "Safeguarding the ICG,T: a global resource for the cocoa industry" was successful and the work to repropagate "at risk" germplasm and install irrigation at the site was initiated towards the end of the year. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2005 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2004

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2004 to 2004)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for visiting scientists from CIRAD (M. Boccara and J-M Thevenin). The WCF (formerly ACRI) project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease continued work to confirm the reactions of some promising clones from the previous phase of the work (1998-2003). CRU initiated activities as part of the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement; a Participatory Approach" building on the research undertaken in the earlier CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project "Germplasm Conservation and Utilisation" but including germplasm enhancement for Witches' Broom resistance. CRU continued its invovlement in another CFC supported project "To establish the physical, chemical and organoleptic parameters differentiating fine and bulk cocoa". CRU also continued its invovlement in a project with USDA to develop a DNA fingerprinting database for all major cacao collections in the Americas. Initial results suggest that there is relatively little duplication of germplasm in the collection of original trees in Marper Farm,demonstating that this is a valuable reference for identification of cacao accessions. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2004 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Witches' Broom x Genotype Interactions.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2002 to 2004)
Researcher: Dr. M.Shaw
A research project following on from the Witches Broom ring-test activity of the CFC/ICCO/Bioversity Conservation and Utilisation of Cacao Germplasm project. Different cocoa varieties were tested against strains of Witches' Broom (WB) fungus from different regions in S. America under controlled greenhouse conditions in the UK. It was established that although a variety might be resistant to one strain of WB, it could be quite susceptible to another.

Cocoa Pod Borer Research 1995-2004

Funded by BCCCA and Co-funding towards SUCCESS CPB management project involving ASKINDO, USDA, USAID and WCF
» Imperial College
(1995 to 2004)
BCCCA support enabled a consultant to provide input on experimental design, management and data analysis to CPB projects to develop and implement integrated pest management control systems for this major pest in SE Asia.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2002

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2003 to 2003)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for visiting scientists from CIRAD (O. Sounigo and J-M Thevenin) and GORTT (V. Mooleedhar). Other projects include the American Cocoa Research Institute's project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease and the Common Fund for Commodities/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa germplasm conservation and utilisation: a global approach". A new collaborative project with USDA was initiated in 2001 to compile a genetic fingerprint database of germplasm in South American collections. CRU agreed to extract DNA from every accession in the ICG,T and send samples to USDA Beltsville for microsatellite analysis with an automatic sequencer. Other research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2001 included the continuation of the CRU/INIAP initiative to conserve the LCT-EEN material by replicating materials held in the field genebank at San Carlos, Ecuador for dissemination to EETP and CRU (via Barbados Quarantine Station), further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2003

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2003 to 2003)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for visiting scientists from CIRAD (M. Boccara and J-M Thevenin). The American Cocoa Research Institute's five year project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease was completed in July 2003 with the screening of over 1000 accessions, and was extended for a further year. The CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa Germplasm Conservation and Utilisation" came to an end in 2003 though activities on the germplasm enhancement trials and refinement of the CFC project collection continued. CRU continued its invovlement in another CFC supported project "To establish the physical, chemical and organoleptic parameters differentiating fine and bulk cocoa". CRU also participated in the project to develop a DNA fingerprinting database for all major cacao collections in the Americas by extracting DNA from ICG,T accessions for microsatellite analysis at USDA Beltsville. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2003 included the transfer to Trinidad of the remaining clones from the Barbados Quarantine Station which was scheduled for closure, further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Process of Host Infection by Basidiospores of Moniliophthora perniciosa (formerly Crinipellis perniciosa) Witches' Broom.

Funded by CRUK
» University of Aberystwyth
(2001 to 2003)
Researchers: Dr. G.Griffiths, Dr. I.Scott, Dr. T. Carver
A post-doctoral research project using electron microscopy to study the infection process. The study demonstrated that infection usually occurs through hair cells rather than stomata as had previously been thought.

Developmental Changes as Moniliophthora (formerly Crinipellis) perniciosa (Witches' Broom) progresses from Biotrophic to Saprophytic Growth.

Funded by CRUK
» University of Aberystwyth
(1998 to 2002)
Researchers: Dr. G.Griffiths, Dr. I.Scott
A post-graduate research project to study the changes at the gene expression level for key enzymes as the infected cocoa shoot dies and the Witches' Broom fungus prepares to produce its spores.

Genetic Diversity in Moniliophthora perniciosa (formerly Crinipellis perniciosa)

Funded by CRUK
» University of Aberystwyth
(1998 to 2002)
Researchers: Dr. G.Griffiths, Dr. I.Scott
A research project to use AFLP genetic fingerprinting to study the relationships between different strains of Witches' Broom fungus and its close relationship to Frosty Pod fungus (Moniliophthora roreri).

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2001

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2001 to 2001)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for visiting scientists from CIRAD (O. Sounigo and J-M Thevenin) and GORTT (V. Mooleedhar). Other projects include the American Cocoa Research Institute's project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease and the Common Fund for Commodities/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa germplasm conservation and utilisation: a global approach". A new collaborative project with USDA was initiated in 2001 to compile a genetic fingerprint database of germplasm in South American collections. CRU agreed to extract DNA from every accession in the ICG,T and send samples to USDA Beltsville for microsatellite analysis with an automatic sequencer. Other research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2001 included the continuation of the CRU/INIAP initiative to conserve the LCT-EEN material by replicating materials held in the field genebank at San Carlos, Ecuador for dissemination to EETP and CRU (via Barbados Quarantine Station), further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Entomopathogenic Fungi for Control of Mirids in Ghana

Funded by GCGRA
» CABI
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(1999 to 2001)
Researcher: Dr George Oduor
This project was initiated to find, isolate and identify suitable fungal pathogens which could be used to develop an environmentally friendly biocontrol technique to control mirids (capsids), an insect pest which cause substantial damage to the cocoa crop in West Africa. The objectives were to isolate suitable pathogens from mirid populations in Ghana, demonstrate the technical feasibility of cocoa mirid control using fungal pathogens and train Ghanaian scientists in the principles of insect pathology and production of fungal entomopathogens. It complements a larger CABI/CRIG project which was funded by the UK Government (DFID). Staff from the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) were trained in various aspects of insect pathology both in the laboratory in CABI (UK), CABI-ARC (Kenya) and through on-the-job training in Ghana. Surveys for pathogens in the different cocoa growing regions in Ghana recovered a number of fungal pathogens but only Beauveria bassiana was considered to be worth evaluating as a potential mycoinsecticide. Four other isolates of B. bassiana from cocoa mirids in Papua New Guinea were studied alongside the Ghanaian one. Bioassays against the mirid Sahlbergella singularis did not show any significant differences in the pathogenicities of these isolates. Studies conducted at different temperatures (23, 28 and 33OC) on the rate of growth on artificial medium, intensity of sporulation and viability of both dry spores and spores formulated in oil, of the different isolates identified isolate 382948 (originally isolated from S. singularis in Ghana) as the most promising one for development into a biopesticide. A technique for mass producing B. bassiana on sterilised boiled rice was developed and utilised. Further work is now required in refining formulation, and conducting field trials in order to evaluate the efficacy of this potential biopesticide against cocoa mirid.

The Development of a Cocoa Pest Management Simulation Model to Measure the Efficacy & Economic Return of Management Activities Against Cocoa Pod Borer, Rats, Mirid Bugs & Pod Diseases.

Funded by BCCCA
» Centre for Environmental Technology, Imperial College at Silwood Park
» University of Reading
(2000 to 2000)
Researchers: J. Mumford, P. Hadley, Dr. A.Leach, Dr. A.Daymond
A project to enhance a computer simulation model of the CPB for Indonesian cocoa production, which had been previously developed with BCCCA support, by incorporating elements to predict the pod development cycle, and estimate the net returns of management strategies. It is anticipated that the model can be used as a training tool to help extension workers to understand the dynamics of CPB infestation and how management options may shift to maintain optimal returns for farmers under different market conditions (labour costs/cocoa price).

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2000

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2000 to 2000)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for visiting scientists from CIRAD (O. Sounigo and J-M Thevenin) and GORTT (V. Mooleedhar). Other projects include the American Cocoa Research Institute's project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease, the CAOBISCO project "Use of molecular markers to identify the genetic basis of resistance to Black Pod disease (Phytophthora) and identify early screening markers (completed September 2000) and the Common Fund for Commodities/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa germplasm conservation and utilisation: a global approach". Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2000 included the continuation of the CRU/INIAP initiative to conserve the LCT-EEN material by replicating materials held in the field genebank at San Carlos, Ecuador for dissemination to EETP and CRU (via Barbados Quarantine Station), further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Diagnostic procedures for detection of Cocoa Swollen Shoot Badnavirus Isolates

Funded by GCGRA
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(1988 to 2000)
Researcher: Dr. S. Sackey
Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus (CSSV) disease has a serious impact on cocoa production in many areas of West Africa though it is not known to occur in the main cocoa areas of the Americas or Southeast Asia. It is one of the most challenging diseases to detect/diagnose both in the field and during the quarantine process since the leaf symptoms of many strains are difficult to distinguish from those caused by mineral deficiencies, and moreover, since viral infections may remain latent/asymptomatic for several years. At the start of this project in 2000, a review of the CSSV detection methods reported in the literature indicated that it was still difficult to unequivocally diagnose cocoa swollen shoot badnavirus infections, since with the exception of electron microscopy and host symptom induction in seedlings, the various diagnostic practices could not be relied upon to universally detect all isolates/infections. To increase the range of strains that the primers could detect, a nucleotide sequence database was compiled on a segment of virus genome covering thirty-six CSSV isolates. Even though PCR DNA products were obtained from all the selected virus isolates, cloning and nucleotide sequencing proved difficult. Thus nucleotide sequences were generated from only a few isolates. The second part of the project was to design new primers based on a new consensus of that part of the virus genome defined by the badna primers. The consensus generated from the few CSSV isolates were used in conjunction with sequences from other viruses associated with tropical crops typically found in Ghanaian cocoa farms, i.e. Discorea alata (yam), banana, and sugarcane, and some typical weeds, i.e. commelina, and kalenchoe. The new primers were characterized to determine optimal conditions for PCR. In the third part of the project, the primers were assessed for their ability to generate amplification products from CSSV infected tissue from these same 36 isolates. It was shown that unlike the universal primers of Lockhart and Olszewski (1983) all but a few of the samples tested produced only one DNA amplification product of the expected 600 base pair molecular weight. Selected amplification products were cloned and sequenced and it was confirmed that they were virus-coded. The cloned DNAs were used as templates for the synthesis of non-radioactive labelled probes for dot blot hybridisation analysis of crude virus DNA extracts, and differentiated between virus DNA and uninfected (healthy) Amelonado cocoa DNA. The project was carried out in part as a postgraduate research project and Ms Rita Nana Konadu Osei submitted her thesis in partial fulfilment of the conditions for the award of the M.Phil. degree in Biochemistry from the University of Ghana in December 2000.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1999

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1999 to 1999)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for visiting scientists from CIRAD (O. Sounigo and J-M Thevenin) and GORTT (V. Mooleedhar). Other projects include the American Cocoa Research Institute's project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease, the CAOBISCO project "Use of molecular markers to identify the genetic basis of resistance to Black Pod disease (Phytophthora) and identify early screening markers and the Common Fund for Commodities/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa germplasm conservation and utilisation: a global approach". Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 1999 included a CRU/INIAP initiative to conserve the LCT-EEN material by replicating materials held in the field genebank at San Carlos, Ecuador for dissemination to EETP and CRU (via Barbados Quarantine Station), further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Economic Model for CPB

Funded by BCCCA
» Centre for Environmental Technology, Imperial College at Silwood Park
(1998 to 1998)
Researchers: Prof. J. Mumford, Dr. A.Leach
A short project to develop a model to estimate the effects of Complete, Frequent, Regular Harvesting (CFRH) and/or pesticide applications on the dry weight of the cocoa harvested. The model used data generated by the ACRI/ASKINDO/BCCCA Cocoa Pod Borer Management Project in Indonesia. The model shows how CPB can be effectively suppressed by the removal of ripe pods on a weekly basis to substantially increase yield compared to monthly harvest due to the effect on the CPB alone. However, the effects of CRFH are even greater when the losses due to rat and Black Pod damage are also taken into account. The model predicts that pesticide application would have to take place on a very frequent basis (weekly) in a monthly harvesting regime to produce yields comparable to those obtainable with a weekly harvesting regime.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1998

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1998 to 1998)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for visiting scientists from CIRAD (O. Sounigo and J-M Thevenin), GORTT (V. Mooleedhar), Nestle (J. Reneau) and CRIG (A. Karimu). The American Cocoa Research Institute's project to evaluate genotypic variation in cocoa butter content of seeds came to an end in 1998 and a new project was started to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 1998 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

A rapid PCR diagnostic test to identify Black Pod pathogens (Phytophthora palmivora, P. megakarya)

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Aberystwyth
(1997 to 1997)
Researcher: Dr. G.Griffiths
A short project to develop a PCR method to diagnose the causal agent of Black Pod infections from fresh or dried samples of pod husk.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1997

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1997 to 1997)
Researchers: Prof. John Spence (to August 1997), Dr. David Butler (from September 1997)
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Additional support was received from CIRAD for two visiting scientists (O. Sounigo and J-M Thevenin) and from the American Cocoa Research Institute for a project to evaluate genotypic variation in cocoa butter content of seeds. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation; Data management; Research and Training; Publications and International Collaboration. Activities in 1997 included a study of the morphological variation in the germplasm collected from the Maya mountains of Southern Belize, further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1996

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1996 to 1996)
Researcher: Prof. John Spence
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago with additional support from CIRAD for visiting scientists and with funding from the American Cocoa Research Institute for a project to evaluate genotypic variation in cocoa butter content of seeds. The research continued to be centred around the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T). Agreement was reached to use the remaining part of the European Development Fund grant (which established the ICG,T) to support the "International Workshop on the Utilisation of the Genetic Resources of the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad" held in June 1996 . The event brought breeders and other researchers from many cocoa producing countries for discussions on pre-breeding, quarantine,data accessibility and training needs amongst other topics. It also provided an opportunity for discussions on the IPGRI proposal "Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation- A Global Approach" which was being developed for submission to CFC via the ICCO. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation; Data management; Research and Training; Publications and International Collaboration. Activities in 1996 included participation in initiatives to collect germplasm from the Maya mountains of Southern Belize, further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and evaluation for characters including bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance.

Laboratory and field evaluation of neem seed water extract with different spraying nozzles for control of capsids

Funded by GCGRA
» University of Kade
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(1995 to 1996)
Researcher: Prof Afreh-Nuamah

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1995

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1995 to 1995)
Researcher: Prof. John Spence
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago with additional support from CIRAD for two visiting scientists and with funding from the American Cocoa Research Institute for a project to evaluate genotypic variation in cocoa butter content of seeds. The research continued to be centred around the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) which was established with support from the European Development Fund and which had been recognised as an international collection by IBPGR/IPGRI. The generous support from the European Union came to an end in 1994 on schedule but a number of students who had been supported by this grant completed their studies in 1995. Research at CRU continues to be organised under the work programmes are Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation; Data management; Research and Training; Publications and International Collaboration. Activities in 1995 included participation in initiatives to collect/transfer germplasm from Ecuador and French Guiana, studies of environmental effects on phenotype expression, use of molecular markers to assess genetic diversity, confirm identity and in genome mapping, field and laboratory based evaluation of disease resistance, and the influence of fermentation on flavour and quality characteristics.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1994

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1994 to 1994)
Researcher: Prof. John Spence
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The research continued to be centred around the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) which was established with support from the European Development Fund and which had been recognised as an international collection by IBPGR/IPGRI. The generous support from the European Union came to an end in 1994 on schedule and a number of the post-graduate students that had been supported by this grant completed their studies. Mr. Mooleedhar's secondment from the Ministry also came to an end, though GORTT kindly permitted him to continue to carry out the duties of Agronomist with no charge to CRU. As the EU funding came to a close, it was agreed that an evaluation of the project should be conducted and this Evaluation Mission was carried out by Drs. Engels and Dyce. One of the recommendations made in the Evaluation report was that greater emphasis should be placed on CRU's work programmes and a new format for the Annual Report was adopted to reflect this. These work programmes are Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation; Data management; Research and Training; Publications and International Collaboration. Activities in 1994 included the production of two CRU Newsletters, analysis of pod indices data and isozyme/RAPD data, development of a new propagation technique, and evaluation of germplasm for Black Pod and Witches' Broom diseases together with further research on the organisms causing these diseases.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1993

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1993 to 1993)
Researcher: Prof. John Spence
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The research continued to be centred around the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) which was established with support from the European Development Fund and which had been recognised as an international collection by IBPGR/IPGRI. CRU had also benefitted from support from the European Economic Community towards a number of post-graduate students from the ACP countries and two visiting scientists from CIRAD (Dr. M. Ducamp and Mr. O. Sounigo). In 1993, research focussed on assessing phenotypic diversity within the ICG,T using morphological descriptors (led by F. Bekele) and its genetic diversity using isozymesand RAPD analysis (O. Sounigo, Y. Christopher, S. Misir). Research on aspects of cocoa physiology, including responses to drought and high light levels continued and the pathology section studied relationships between leaf and pod resistance to Black Pod infection and aspects of Witches' Broom infection. Dr. J. Warren (breeder/geneticist) left CRU in June 1993.

Evaluation of the Virobacterial Agglutination Test for Cocoa Shoot Virus

Funded by BCCCA
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
» University of Reading
(1992 to 1993)
Researchers: Prof. P. Hadley, Dr. Ann Parker

Fungal Biomass Distribution in Witches' Broom Disease of Cocoa

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Liverpool
(1989 to 1993)
Researcher: Dr. K. Hardwick
A PhD project to investigate fungal biomass distribution in Witches' Broom Disease of Cocoa

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1992

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1992 to 1992)
Researcher: Prof. John Spence
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The research continued to be centred around the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) which was established with support from the European Development Fund and which had been recognised as an international collection by IBPGR. CRU had also benefitted from support from the European Economic Community towards a number of post-graduate students from the ACP countries and a visiting scientist from CIRAD. In 1992, research focussed on characterising the accessions in the ICG,T using morphological descriptors (led by F. Bekele) and isozymes (Y. Christopher, E. Johnson, F. Hosein, J. Warren) and evaluating their resistance to rodents (D. Emamdie, J. Warren) and studies of the breeding system (K.Kalai, J.Warren). Aspects of pathology research included fungicide application methods (T. Sreenivasan) and further studies of the biology of Phytophthora spp. (Black Pod Rot) and Crinipellis (now Moniliophthora) perniciosa. CRU organised a Workshop entitled "Conservation, Characterisation and Utilisation of Cocoa Genetic Resources in the 21st Century" which was attended by over 50 delegates from 22 different countries.

Testing for WB Resistance

Funded by BCCCA
» Imperial College
(1990 to 1992)
Researchers: Dr. B. Wheeler, Dr. Mark Luterbacher
A research project to develop methods to screen genotypes for their reaction to different strains of Moniliophthora perniciosa (formerly Crinipellis perniciosa), the fungus which causes Witches' broom disease.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1991

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1991 to 1991)
Researcher: Prof. John Spence
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The research continued to be centred around the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) which was established with support from the European Development Fund and which had been recognised as an international collection by IBPGR. CRU had also benefitted from support from the European Economic Community towards a number of post-graduate students from the ACP countries. The research group at CRU was complemented by the appointment of a new breeder/geneticist, Dr. John Warren, and visiting scientists from CIRAD (Dr. M. Ducamp) and the University of Reading (Dr. T. Pettitt). BCCCA provided support for two staff members, Felicia Hosein and Elizabeth Johnson, to spend 3 months at the Scottish Crop Research Institute gaining knowledge on the use of RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) technology. During 1991 CRU staff and students continued to focus their research on the accessions of the ICG,T including morphological and biochemical characterisation, inheritance of bean size characteristics and resistance to Phytophthora in leaf tissue. Pathology research included epidemiology of Phytophthora spp. and the identification of a new pod disease (Ceratocystis paradoxa). Students also carried out research on aspects of cocoa physiololgy including the effects of shade on growth.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1990

Funded by BCCCA and GORTT
» University of the West Indies
(1990 to 1990)
Researcher: Prof. John Spence
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The research continued to be centred around the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) which was established with support from the European Development Fund and which had been recognised as an international collection by IBPGR. During this period, the Genetic Resources programme (led by Dr. Kennedy and Mrs Gonsalves) continued to focus on the morphological and isozyme characterisation of the accessions in the ICG,T. Some work was undertaken on cocoa physiology including an MPhil study of drought resistance and research by J.H.H. Yapp, a visiting scientist from University of Reading. The Pathology programme (led by Dr. Sreenivasan) continued to investigate the biology of Black Pod and Witches Broom diseases. Dr. T. Pettitt, another visiting scientist from the University of Reading, undertook research on copper-impregnated collars as a potential way to control black pod disease. BCCCA also provided additional support for work on isozymes and to support a Botanist/Collector who was appointed in late 1989 to acquire new accessions for the ICG,T.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1987-89

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1987 to 1989)
Researchers: Dr. A.J. Kennedy (Head to Nov. 1988), Prof. L.A. Wilson (acting Head Dec. 1988-July 1989), Prof. J.A. Spence (from August 1989).
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The research continued to be centred around the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) which was established with support from the European Development Fund and which had been recognised as an international collection by IBPGR. During this period, the Genetic Resources programme (led by Dr. Kennedy and Mrs Gonsalves) continued to focus on the morphological and isozyme characterisation of the accessions in the ICG,T. Some work was undertaken on cocoa physiology including an MPhil study of drought resistance and research by J.H.H. Yapp, a visiting scientist from University of Reading. The Pathology programme (led by Dr. Sreenivasan) continued to investigate the biology of Black Pod and Witches Broom diseases. Dr. T. Pettitt, another visiting scientist from the University of Reading, undertook research on copper-impregnated collars as a potential way to control black pod disease. BCCCA also provided additional support for work on isozymes and to support a Botanist/Collector who was appointed in late 1989 to acquire new accessions for the ICG,T.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1984-86

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1984 to 1986)
Researcher: Dr. A.J. Kennedy (Head)
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association CCCA and later the BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The research effort was organised under three major programmes: Agronomy, Disease Management and Genetic Resources. The main focus for the research was on the extensive collections of germplasm which were distributed across several sites within Trinidad. The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) recognised the global importance of this material and with the approval of an application for support to the European Development Fund, the process of bringing together all of this germplasm at a single site was initiated to create the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T). During this period, the Genetic Resources programme (led by Dr. A.J. Kennedy with Mr. Yidana working on an IBPGR internship) focussed on the description of pod and bean morphology of accessions in the ICG,T and isozyme variation in cocoa accessions. The Agronomy programme (led by Mr Muttschneller to August 1985 and then by Mrs C. Gonsalves, with Dr. Fagan leading the Jamaica station until July 1986) focussed on propagating and planting materials at the University Cocoa Research Station (UCRS) following the closure of the Las Hermanas Field Station. The Pathology programme (led by Dr. Sreenivasan) continued to investigate the biology of Black Pod and Witches Broom diseases.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1980-82

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1980 to 1982)
Researcher: Dr. E.F. Iton/Dr. A.J. Kennedy
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association CCCA and later the BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The research effort was organised under three major programmes: Agronomy, Disease Management and Genetic Resources. The main focus for the research was on the extensive collections of germplasm which were distributed across several sites within Trinidad. The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) recognised the global importance of this material and with the approval of an application for support to the European Development Fund, the process of bringing together all of this germplasm at a single site was initiated to create the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1970-79

Funded by BCCCA and GORTT
» University of the West Indies
(1970 to 1979)
Researcher: Dr. E.F. Iton/Dr. D.B. Murray
The Cocoa Research Association was established in 1973 to manage a Trust Fund set up by the late John Cadbury to support cocoa research, especially work carried out in Trinidad. [Summarised from Fifty Years of Cocoa Research in Trinidad & Tobago, Posnette A.F. (1986)] The Cacao Research Scheme, originally set up under ICTA in 1930, remained under the aegis of the University of the West Indies from 1960 onwards. The research programme continued to have a more regional focus and included further collecting missions in the Amazon basin and evaluation of progeny trials though financial stringency limited recording of trial data (W.S. Chalmers, L.L.de Verteuil), physiology and environmental effects (R.Fordham), pests and diseases including Ceratocystsis and Phytophthora diseases( T.N. Sreenivasan) and post-harvest processing and biochemistry (A. Lopez and V.C. Quesnel).

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1960-69

Funded by BCCCA and GORTT
» University of the West Indies
(1060 to 1969)
Researcher: Prof F. Hardy/Dr. D.B. Murray
[Summarised from Fifty Years of Cocoa Research in Trinidad & Tobago, Posnette A.F. (1986)] The Cacao Research Scheme, originally set up under ICTA in 1930, came under the aegis of the University of the West Indies from 1960 onwards. The research programme was re-orientated towards a more regional focus and new field trials were planted at Las Hermanas (rather than River Estate). Research focussed on evaluation of new introductions, progeny trials, disease resistance trials and incompatibility studies(B.G.D. Bartley 1951-70, D.B. Murrary 1950-77), collection of new materials from Ecuador (W.S. Chalmers 1968-73), physiology and environmental effects (D.B. Murrary, Sale 1963-69), pests and diseases including Ceratocystsis ( E.F. Iton 1957-79, L.W. Small) and Black Pod (J.Spence 1965-66), weed control (L. Kasasian) and post-harvest processing ( L.A. Griffiths 1956-61, A. Lopez 1967-1970 , V.C. Quesnel, 1961-78).

The Cacao Research Scheme in Trinidad 1930-1960

Funded by BCCCA and Govts of Ceylon, Gold Coast, Grenada, Nigeria and Trinidad and the chocolate industry (Cadbury Bros Ltd., J.S.Fry and Sons Ltd and Rowntree and Co.
» Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad
(1930 to 1959)
Researcher: Prof F. Hardy and Prof E.E. Cheesman
[Summarised from Fifty Years of Cocoa Research in Trinidad & Tobago, Posnette A.F. (1986)] The genesis of the Cacao Research Scheme at the Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture was in 1927 when the Committee, formed by the British Government, recommended the formation of Agricultural Research Stations to serve various regions in the tropics by doing long range research not usually covered by agricultural departments of colonial governments.The Cacao Research Scheme was eventually approved in 1930 and was jointly funded by public and private contributors. Research was conducted on a variety of aspects of the crop including its botany and genetics (B.G.D. Bartley 1951-70,E.E. Cheesman 1930-46, F.W.Cope 1937-40, K.S. Dodds 1937-49, F.J. Pound, R.K. McKee 1940-42, A.F. Posnette 1936-49,Voelcker 1935-37), physiology and soil science ( J.A. McDonald 1930-36, H. Evans 1949-52, F. Hardy 1924-76, G. Havord 1950-57, E.C. Humphries 1937-45, H. Lees 1947-49, Maliphant 1953-71, D.B. Murrary 1950-77, R. Nichols 1954-64, J.W. Porteous 1947-1950, E. Pyke 1930-34, G. Rodrigues 1939-70, T.E. Wasowicz 1950-1952), pests and diseases (R.E.D. Baker 1933-54, E.Mc.C Callan 1937-50, W.T. Dale 1943-53, R.G. Fennah 1951-1958, P.C. Holliday 1949-55, E.F. Iton 1957-79, T.W. Kirkpatrick 1946-60 ), economics (A.L. Jolly 1939-50, C.Y. Shephard 1924-47 and post-harvest processing (K.W. De Witt 1950-56, L.A. Griffiths 1956-61, Haworth 1947-50). Research activities included studies of the fruitfulness of cacao (including the incompatibility system), Witches' broom disease, growth flushes/cherelle wilt, selection and evaluation of the ICS clones, propagation methods, mineral nutrition and deficiency symptoms, fermentation systems and collecting germplasm.
"Gaining a better understanding of the pests and diseases of cocoa, so as to control them with minimal use of pesticides"