BCCCA Research Projects (65)

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International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1999

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1999 to 1999)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
This long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International) and is supported by the London cocoa trade. The ICGD is freely available in computerised and printed formats to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. It has become a key resource for the cocoa research community and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

Sustainable Cocoa Production in West Africa: Development of a Farmer-Participatory Integrated Crop Management Project

Funded by BCCCA
» CABI
(1993 to 1993)

Primitive Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1992

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1992 to 1992)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley, Dr. Michelle End
The International Cocoa Germplasm Database project continued to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources and establish itself as a key resource for those interested in cocoa breeding and genetic resources. It continued to build links with the cocoa genebanks and research institutes who contributed the data on the characteristics of their accessions and developed software to help make this information more easily accessible. The project has continued and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

Primitive Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1990-1991.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1991 to 1991)
Researchers: Paul Hadley, Michelle End
In the third year of this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources, a printed version of the database was released to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. The database became known as the International Cocoa Germplasm Database and further information on the origins, current locations and characteristics of cocoa clones was collated into a computerised database in collaboration with cocoa research institutes, universities and individuals working in the area of cocoa genetic resources. The project has continued and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

Reading Quarantine Facility 2005-08

Funded by BCCCA and Masterfoods/USDA
» University of Reading
(2005 to 2008)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 2002-05

Funded by BCCCA and Masterfoods
» University of Reading
(2002 to 2005)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1999-2002

Funded by BCCCA and Masterfoods (from 2001)
» University of Reading
(1999 to 2002)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1996-99

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1996 to 1999)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1993-96

Funded by BCCCA and Malaysian Cocoa Board
» University of Reading
(1993 to 1996)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1990-93

Funded by BCCCA and Malaysian Cocoa Board
» University of Reading
(1990 to 1993)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2008-2010

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2008 to 2010)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley, Dr. Chris Turnbull
The London cocoa trade, NYSE-LIFFE, continues to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD is freely available through its website and is also distributed on CD-ROM to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. The project is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd. In this phase of the project, the ICGD was re-structured to a MYSQL/PHP platform to facilitate updating and improve data accessibility.Data on half-sibs and genetic groups has been added and the way the ICGD deals with synonyms has been improved to allow users to use the clone names that they are most familiar with. Development of a tool to allow ranking of accessions based on characteristics including genetic diversity has continued. The field guide "A Visual Aid to Identifying Widely Distributed Cacao Accessions’ was published using data from the ICGD as part of the CFC/Bioversity Cocoa Genetic Resources project.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2006-2008

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2006 to 2008)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley, Dr. Chris Turnbull
The London cocoa trade, through BCCCA/CRA Ltd., continues to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD is freely available through its website and is also distributed on CD-ROM to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. The project is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD)2004-2006

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2004 to 2006)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Caroline Ford, Dr. Chris Turnbull
The London cocoa trade, through BCCCA/CRA Ltd., continues to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD is freely available through its website and is also distributed on CD-ROM to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. The project is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2011-2013

Funded by BCCCA/CRA (NYSE LIFFE contribution)
» University of Reading
(2011 to 2013)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley, Dr. Chris Turnbull
The London cocoa trade (NYSE -LIFFE), through CRA Ltd., continued to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The project aims to support the continuing breeding and conservation efforts by facilitating access to information on the origins, current location, characteristics of cocoa genetic resources. Although the ICGD is now primarily an online database, providing greater accessibility and allowing more rapid dissemination of new information, a CD-ROM version is available and is especially useful in areas with slow or unreliable internet access. Over 160 copies of ICGD 2012 (released in May 2012), were distributed to over 100 locations around the globe, and were also freely available at the 17th International Cocoa Research Conference (ICRC) in Cameroon (October 2012). Data has continued to be added to ICGD from a wide variety of sources, such as journal articles and conference proceedings, as well as data supplied directly from research institutes. User feedback has driven the continued development of ICGD, resulting in several new features being implemented that improve the search routines and the way in which data is presented. The Genetic Resource Evaluation and Selection Tool (GRest) has also been developed to work alongside ICGD. It impartially and unambiguously ranks accessions, based on information on the traits possessed by individuals and the genetic diversity they represent, allowing selection criteria to be based on specific local requirements. GRest is available on both the online and CD versions of ICGD. As the principle resource for cocoa germplasm information, ICGD has a central role outlined in ‘A Global Strategy for the Conservation and Use of Cacao Genetic Resources, as the Foundation for a Sustainable Cocoa Economy’, recently published by CacaoNet (the global network for cacao genetic resources). Two presentations about ICGD, the data it contains, and how it fits in the Global Strategy for the Conservation and Use of Cacao Genetic Resources, were presented at the 17th International Cocoa Research Conference (ICRC) organised by COPAL. An overview of the GRest program was also presented at the INGENIC workshop that followed the Conference.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2002-2004

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2002 to 2004)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Caroline Ford
The London cocoa trade, through BCCCA/CRA Ltd., continues to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD is freely available through its website and is also distributed on CD-ROM to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. The project is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2000-2002

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2000 to 2002)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End (to end Nov 2000)
The London cocoa trade, through BCCCA/CRA Ltd., continues to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD is freely available through its website and is also distributed on CD-ROM to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. During this phase of the project ICGD Online (www.icgd.rdg.ac.uk) has been considerably improved with the inclusion of new links to view photographs, full references, research station addresses and information on the origins of group names. New pages have been added that allow microsatellite data to be viewed and compared (currently exact matches and possible parents). The project is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1988-89

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1988 to 1989)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1987-88

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1987 to 1988)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1989-90

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1989 to 1990)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Verification of Genotypes in the ICG,T by Genetic Fingerprinting.

Funded by CRA* and GORTT, CIRAD
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1992)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the work at cocoa research work in Trinidad since the 1940's. CRA Ltd and the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago are jointly supporting the core activites at the Cocoa Research Unit including the ongoing programme to ensure that all the replicates of each accession in the ICG,T are correctly identified using genetic fingerprinting techniques. This work is being undertaken in cooperation with a CIRAD scientist based at CRU and with USDA ARS scientists. There is considerable movement of material into and out of the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T), which could potentially result in the misplacement of cocoa material. As overseer of this important cocoa germplasm collection, CRU is systematically checking accessions in the ICG,T, to confirm the identity of already established accessions and therefore avoid mistakes in identity of material used in research, and material distributed to the cocoa community world-wide. The increasing transfer of material among different countries necessitates careful attention to accurate labelling if research objectives are to be met, and results are to be trusted and transferable.

Morphological Characterisation of the Genotypes in the ICG,T

Funded by CRA* and GORTT,CIRAD
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1983)
Researchers: Mrs. F. Bekele, Prof. P. Umaharan
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the work at cocoa research work in Trinidad since the 1940's. CRA Ltd and the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago are jointly supporting the core activites at the Cocoa Research Unit including the on-going programme to collate and analyse data on leaf, flower and pod characteristics from accessions in the ICG,T to ensure clonal identity, study genetic diversity and facilitate selection of promising accessions for further evaluation.

Biochemical Characterisation/Diversity Studies of the Genotypes in the ICG,T.

Funded by CRA* and GORTT, CIRAD,USDA
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1980)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the work at cocoa research work in Trinidad since the 1940's. CRA Ltd and the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago are jointly supporting the core activites at the Cocoa Research Unit including the ongoing programme to use genetic fingerprinting and other biochemical marker techniques to study genetic diversity and prioritise accessions for conservation and/or further evaluation. This work is being undetaken in conjunction with scientists from CIRAD and USDA.

Conservation of Cocoa Germplasm in the ICG,T.

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1946)
Researcher: Prof. P.Umaharan
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the work at cocoa research work in Trinidad since the 1940's. CRA Ltd and the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago are jointly supporting the core activites at the Cocoa Research Unit including maintaining the largest and most genetically diverse field collection of internationally available germplasm as a resource for the global cocoa community.

Collection/Distribution of Germplasm in the ICG,T.

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1940)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the work at cocoa research work in Trinidad since the 1940's. CRA Ltd and the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago are jointly supporting the core activites at the Cocoa Research Unit including the introduction of new germplasm to ICG,T and the preparation of micropropagated materials and budwood for distribution, principally via ICQC,R.

Germplasm enhancement for Witches' Broom and Black Pod Resistance.

Funded by CRA* and CFC and other co-financiers
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1998)
Researchers: Dr. D. Iwaro, Dr. D. Butler
Developing populations with enhanced resistance to major diseases using genetically divergent parental materials.

An Investigation in to the Physiological and Genetic Basis of Establishment of Cocoa Clones.

Funded by CRA* and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock), STCP
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of Reading
» IITA
(2008 to 2011)
Researchers: Dr. A. Daymond, Prof. P.Hadley
A post-graduate research project co-funded by LNV (Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme) and STCP, and administered by BCCCA/CRA Ltd, to investigate the importance of factors such as rootstock x variety effects and physiological performance of the variety during establishment and early growth, especially under drought conditions.

An Investigation in to the Effects of Vegetative Propagation and Juvenility on Cocoa Vigour and Implications for Breeding Strategies, Nursery Management and Distribution of Genetic Resources.

Funded by CRA* and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock)
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of Reading
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2007 to 2011)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley, Dr. P. Tricker
A post-graduate research project to investigate the effects of juvenility, reinvigoration and disruption to the flow of nutrients and water at the graft union on budding success and growth rates of budded plants with a view to understanding why seedling plants perform better than genetically identical plants derived from them.

Support for CacaoNet.

Funded by CRA* and Bioversity, Mars, USDA, WCF
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» Bioversity International
(Ongoing project; started in 2005)
Support towards meetings and other activities associated with the development of a global strategy for the conservation and use of cacao genetic resources.

Support for INGENIC.

Funded by CRA* and Bioversity, Mars, USDA
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» Bioversity International
(Ongoing project; started in 1994)
Support towards INGENIC newsletters, website and workshops which disseminate research findings on cocoa genetics and breeding to cocoa community.

Safeguarding the ICG,T.

Funded by CRA* and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock)
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2006 to 2010)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
A co-funded project with the Government of the Netherlands to carry out a major re-propagation programme and install reservoirs and an irrigation system to improve the security of germplasm held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad.

Field Establishment of Cocoa Clones through the Improvement of Agro-ecological Conditions.

Funded by CRA* and CFC and other co-financiers
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of Reading
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2005 to 2010)
Researchers: Prof. P. Hadley, Dr. A.J. Daymond
A PhD research project to evaluate the effects of shade, mulch and irrigation on the growth, development and physiology of different varieties of cocoa under field and controlled greenhouse conditions.

Co-financed activities as part of ‘Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement: a Participatory Approach’ (CFC/ICCO/IPGRI/Bioversity).

Funded by CRA* and CFC and other co-financiers
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» International Cocoa Organization
» Bioversity International
» Common Fund for Commodities
(2004 to 2010)
Co-financing and counterpart funding for activities at Cocoa Research Unit (Trinidad) and the Univ. of Reading which formed part of this global project which involved 14 institutions in West Africa, the Americas, SE Asia and Europe.

Securing a Sustainable Future for the International Cocoa Quarantine Centre through the Installation of Energy Saving Measures.

Funded by CRA* and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock)
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of Reading
(2008 to 2009)
Researchers: Dr. A. Daymond, Prof. P.Hadley
A jointly funded project with the Government of the Netherlands (Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme) to install energy saving thermal screens and refurbish the quarantine facilities. These measures have resulted in an energy saving of some 40% compared to previous years. The thermal screens also permit better shade/humidity control and result in improved plant growth.

A short project to study the genetic diversity and structure of wild cacao populations using microsatellite markers.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of the West Indies
» University of Reading
(2004 to 2004)
Researchers: Prof. M. Wilkinson, Dr. D. Butler, Prof. P. Umaharan, Dr. N. Cryer
A post-doctoral research project to investigate the genetic diversity of 17 georeferenced wild cocoa populations using a novel approach to select microsatellite markers.

Witches' Broom x Genotype Interactions.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2002 to 2004)
Researcher: Dr. M.Shaw
A research project following on from the Witches Broom ring-test activity of the CFC/ICCO/Bioversity Conservation and Utilisation of Cacao Germplasm project. Different cocoa varieties were tested against strains of Witches' Broom (WB) fungus from different regions in S. America under controlled greenhouse conditions in the UK. It was established that although a variety might be resistant to one strain of WB, it could be quite susceptible to another.

Improving the Productivity and Sustainability of Cocoa Farms in West Africa Through Utilisation of Native Forest Trees in Agroforestry Systems

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Bangor
» IITA
» Forestry Research Institute of Ghana
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2000 to 2004)
Researcher: Dr. M. McDonald
A PhD research project to collate farmer knowledge and agronomic/physiological data on various native Ghanaian tree species and assess their potential as shade trees for cocoa.

The Genetic and Physiological Basis of Incompatibility in Cocoa.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1999 to 2004)
Researchers: Prof. M. Wilkinson, Prof. P. Hadley
This PhD research project involved studies of the recognition and rejection reactions in cocoa's unusual late-acting self-incompatibility mechanism using a combination of microscopy and molecular techniques.

Co-financed activities as part of ‘Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation: A Global Approach’ (CFC/ICCO/IPGRI)

Funded by BCCCA and CFC and other co-financiers
» International Cocoa Organization
» Bioversity International
» Common Fund for Commodities
(1998 to 2004)
Co-financing and counterpart funding for activities at Cocoa Research Unit (Trinidad) and the Univ. of Reading, which formed part of this global project which involved 11 institutions from West Africa, the Americas, SE Asia and Europe.

Cocoa Pod Borer Research 1995-2004

Funded by BCCCA and Co-funding towards SUCCESS CPB management project involving ASKINDO, USDA, USAID and WCF
» Imperial College
(1995 to 2004)
BCCCA support enabled a consultant to provide input on experimental design, management and data analysis to CPB projects to develop and implement integrated pest management control systems for this major pest in SE Asia.

Transfer of LCTAP germplasm.

Funded by BCCCA and INIAP
» University of the West Indies
» INIAP
(1995 to 2001)
The London Cocoa Trade, in conjunction with BCCCA and INIAP, supported an expedition to systematically collect wild cacao plants in Ecuador. Although some of this germplasm was transferred, via quarantine, to international collections as it was collected in the 1980's, there are many accessions which only survive in the field genebank in Ecuador. BCCCA/CRA Ltd. supported an initiative to re-propagate these ageing trees to re-establish them in the main INIAP genebank in preparation for transfer to the ICG,T.

The Development of a Cocoa Pest Management Simulation Model to Measure the Efficacy & Economic Return of Management Activities Against Cocoa Pod Borer, Rats, Mirid Bugs & Pod Diseases.

Funded by BCCCA
» Centre for Environmental Technology, Imperial College at Silwood Park
» University of Reading
(2000 to 2000)
Researchers: J. Mumford, P. Hadley, Dr. A.Leach, Dr. A.Daymond
A project to enhance a computer simulation model of the CPB for Indonesian cocoa production, which had been previously developed with BCCCA support, by incorporating elements to predict the pod development cycle, and estimate the net returns of management strategies. It is anticipated that the model can be used as a training tool to help extension workers to understand the dynamics of CPB infestation and how management options may shift to maintain optimal returns for farmers under different market conditions (labour costs/cocoa price).

Collecting and Genetic Fingerprinting of Guyana Cocoa Material Using ISSR-PCR.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of the West of England
» University of Reading
(1999 to 1999)
Researcher: Prof.M.Wilkinson
A short project to study the levels of genetic diversity present in material collected by the Guyana Cocoa Initiative from uncultivated sources and also to genetically fingerprint the materials held in the Timehri Genebank.

Guyana Cocoa Research Initiative

Funded by BCCCA
» University of the West of England
(1995 to 1999)
Researcher: Dr. M. Johnston
Support to allow students to participate in summer expeditions to collect wild cocoa material in Guyana and establish it in the National Genebank at Timehri. An associated genetic fingerprinting study showed that some of the material collected was very different to most other accessions held in international genebanks.

Economic Model for CPB

Funded by BCCCA
» Centre for Environmental Technology, Imperial College at Silwood Park
(1998 to 1998)
Researchers: Prof. J. Mumford, Dr. A.Leach
A short project to develop a model to estimate the effects of Complete, Frequent, Regular Harvesting (CFRH) and/or pesticide applications on the dry weight of the cocoa harvested. The model used data generated by the ACRI/ASKINDO/BCCCA Cocoa Pod Borer Management Project in Indonesia. The model shows how CPB can be effectively suppressed by the removal of ripe pods on a weekly basis to substantially increase yield compared to monthly harvest due to the effect on the CPB alone. However, the effects of CRFH are even greater when the losses due to rat and Black Pod damage are also taken into account. The model predicts that pesticide application would have to take place on a very frequent basis (weekly) in a monthly harvesting regime to produce yields comparable to those obtainable with a weekly harvesting regime.

Barbados Quarantine Station

Funded by BCCCA
» University of the West Indies
(1980 to 1998)
BCCCA used to provide support for a greenhouse facility in Barbados to quarantine materials entering the ICG,T. Since 1998 this function has been undertaken by the International Cocoa Quarantine Centre, University of Reading.

A rapid PCR diagnostic test to identify Black Pod pathogens (Phytophthora palmivora, P. megakarya)

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Aberystwyth
(1997 to 1997)
Researcher: Dr. G.Griffiths
A short project to develop a PCR method to diagnose the causal agent of Black Pod infections from fresh or dried samples of pod husk.

Collecting Cacao Germplasm in Belize

Funded by CRA*
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1994 to 1997)
Researchers: Dr. D. Butler, Dr. V. Mooleedhar
A series of short expeditions in 1994, 1996 and 1997 to prospect for wild cocoa in the forest areas of the Maya Mountains in Belize and to establish this material in the Barbados Quarantine Facility for onwards transmission to the ICG,T

Revision of the ‘Cocoa Beans: Chocolate Manufacturers' Quality Requirements’ booklet

Funded by BCCCA
» BCCCA
(1996 to 1996)
The revision of BCCCA’s booklet ‘Cocoa Beans: Chocolate Manufacturers’ Quality Requirements’ was undertaken by Dr. John Clapperton, a well known expert in cocoa flavour and other aspects of cocoa quality, in consultation with industry experts. The resulting Fourth Edition of the book was published in October 1996 and has continued to be a well regarded source of information on aspects of quality management including Good Agricultural Practice and Good Manufacturing Practice, incorporating new knowledge and understanding of factors affecting flavour, food hygiene and IPM.

Photographs of the BAL Germplasm collection

Funded by BCCCA
» BCCCA
(1996 to 1996)
A short project to photograph the accessions in the BAL Plantations collection for inclusion in the ICGD.

Review of potential research needs for the cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella.

Funded by BCCCA
» Imperial College
(1995 to 1995)
Researcher: J.D. Mumford & B.J. Wood
BCCCA commissioned a review of potential research needs for the cocoa pod borer. The objectives were to 1.)outline previous research carried out on CPB in Southeast Asia 2.) to describe current and further research on CPB and 3.) to describe measures which have been, and are being, taken to contain the CPB problem or to live with it.

Using an NMR method to analyse cocoa butter content of samples from BAL Plantations

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
» BAL Plantations Sdn Bhd
(1994 to 1995)
Researchers: Prof. P. Hadley, Dr. M. End

Evaluation of the Virobacterial Agglutination Test for Cocoa Shoot Virus

Funded by BCCCA
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
» University of Reading
(1992 to 1993)
Researchers: Prof. P. Hadley, Dr. Ann Parker

Fungal Biomass Distribution in Witches' Broom Disease of Cocoa

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Liverpool
(1989 to 1993)
Researcher: Dr. K. Hardwick
A PhD project to investigate fungal biomass distribution in Witches' Broom Disease of Cocoa

Testing for WB Resistance

Funded by BCCCA
» Imperial College
(1990 to 1992)
Researchers: Dr. B. Wheeler, Dr. Mark Luterbacher
A research project to develop methods to screen genotypes for their reaction to different strains of Moniliophthora perniciosa (formerly Crinipellis perniciosa), the fungus which causes Witches' broom disease.

A study into the potential for enhancing productivity in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) through exploitation of physiological and genetic variation.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
» BAL Plantations Sdn Bhd
(1989 to 1992)
Researcher: Prof. P. Hadley

Research to Identify the Origins of Cocoa Flavour Characteristics

Funded by BCCCA and BAL Plantations, Sabah, Malaysia
» University of Reading
» BAL Plantations Sdn Bhd
(1990 to 1992)
Researcher: Dr. John Clapperton
The BCCCA Flavour project sought to gain a better understanding of the factors influencing cocoa flavour, and particularly the production of undesirable off-flavours, and exploring ways in which these may be minimised or avoided. During the project protocols were established for post-harvest processing, including small-scale fermentation techniques which could enable samples as small as 0.75kg beans to be fermented in a heap of mixed beans with highly satisfactory results. Protocols were also developed for tasting of standard liquor samples by trained panelists allowing flavour to be evaluated on a reproduceable basis. The research found a very clear flavour difference between families of genotypes and demonstrated that flavour was influenced strongly by the mother tree, irrespective of the pollen donor, and that flavour characteristics are heritable.

Primitive Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1989-1990

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1989 to 1990)
Researchers: Paul Hadley, Michelle End
This was an extension to a pilot project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The database of Primitive Cocoa Germplasm was expanded to include selected material and data on clone characteristics. The project has continued to develop and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

Primitive Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1988-1989

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1988 to 1989)
Researcher: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth
This was a pilot project to collate information on cocoa genetic resources with a view to making the information more widely available to the cocoa research community. The first output from the project, released as ‘The Catalogue of Primitive Cocoa Germplasm’ in 1989, was distributed in computerised form to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. It contained information on the origins and current distribution of cocoa germplasm collected from the wild since 1938.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1985-86

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1985 to 1986)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The initial project to transfer the Kew Cocoa Quarantine Collection to the University of Reading and establish a new quarantine service to ensure the safe movement of cocoa germplasm around the world - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1998

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1998 to 1998)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
This long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International) and is supported by the London cocoa trade. The ICGD is freely available in computerised and printed formats to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. It has become a key resource for the cocoa research community and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1997

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1997 to 1997)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
This long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International) and is supported by the London cocoa trade. The ICGD is freely available in computerised and printed formats to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. It has become a key resource for the cocoa research community and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1996

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1996 to 1996)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Michelle End
This long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International) and is supported by the London cocoa trade. The ICGD is freely available in computerised and printed formats to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. It has become a key resource for the cocoa research community and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1995

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1995 to 1995)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
The London cocoa trade, through BCCCA/CRA Ltd., continued to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources. In this phase of the project, a second MS-DOS version of the ICGD was distributed widely to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. The project has continued to develop and is now a key resource for the cocoa research community, funded by NYSE LIFFE and administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1994

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1994 to 1996)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
In 1994, the London cocoa trade agreed that its contributions to the BCCCA research programme should be used to support the International Cocoa Germplasm Database project which had been initiated in 1988 to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD was distributed in computerised form to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. [The project has continued and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd].

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1993

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1993 to 1993)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
The International Cocoa Germplasm Database project continued to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources and establish itself as a key resource for those interested in cocoa breeding and genetic resources. It continued to build links with the cocoa genebanks and research institutes who contributed the data on the characteristics of their accessions and developed software to help make this information more easily accessible. The project has continued and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.
"Supporting the global effort to develop better planting materials for farmers and advance our knowledge towards the sustainable growing of cocoa"