BCCCA Research Projects (83)

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International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1999

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1999 to 1999)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
This long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International) and is supported by the London cocoa trade. The ICGD is freely available in computerised and printed formats to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. It has become a key resource for the cocoa research community and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

Sustainable Cocoa Production in West Africa: Development of a Farmer-Participatory Integrated Crop Management Project

Funded by BCCCA
» CABI
(1993 to 1993)

Primitive Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1992

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1992 to 1992)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley, Dr. Michelle End
The International Cocoa Germplasm Database project continued to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources and establish itself as a key resource for those interested in cocoa breeding and genetic resources. It continued to build links with the cocoa genebanks and research institutes who contributed the data on the characteristics of their accessions and developed software to help make this information more easily accessible. The project has continued and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

Primitive Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1990-1991.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1991 to 1991)
Researchers: Paul Hadley, Michelle End
In the third year of this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources, a printed version of the database was released to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. The database became known as the International Cocoa Germplasm Database and further information on the origins, current locations and characteristics of cocoa clones was collated into a computerised database in collaboration with cocoa research institutes, universities and individuals working in the area of cocoa genetic resources. The project has continued and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

Reading Quarantine Facility 2005-08

Funded by BCCCA and Masterfoods/USDA
» University of Reading
(2005 to 2008)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 2002-05

Funded by BCCCA and Masterfoods
» University of Reading
(2002 to 2005)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1999-2002

Funded by BCCCA and Masterfoods (from 2001)
» University of Reading
(1999 to 2002)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1996-99

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1996 to 1999)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1993-96

Funded by BCCCA and Malaysian Cocoa Board
» University of Reading
(1993 to 1996)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1990-93

Funded by BCCCA and Malaysian Cocoa Board
» University of Reading
(1990 to 1993)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2008-2010

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2008 to 2010)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley, Dr. Chris Turnbull
The London cocoa trade, NYSE-LIFFE, continues to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD is freely available through its website and is also distributed on CD-ROM to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. The project is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd. In this phase of the project, the ICGD was re-structured to a MYSQL/PHP platform to facilitate updating and improve data accessibility.Data on half-sibs and genetic groups has been added and the way the ICGD deals with synonyms has been improved to allow users to use the clone names that they are most familiar with. Development of a tool to allow ranking of accessions based on characteristics including genetic diversity has continued. The field guide "A Visual Aid to Identifying Widely Distributed Cacao Accessions’ was published using data from the ICGD as part of the CFC/Bioversity Cocoa Genetic Resources project.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2006-2008

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2006 to 2008)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley, Dr. Chris Turnbull
The London cocoa trade, through BCCCA/CRA Ltd., continues to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD is freely available through its website and is also distributed on CD-ROM to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. The project is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD)2004-2006

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2004 to 2006)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Caroline Ford, Dr. Chris Turnbull
The London cocoa trade, through BCCCA/CRA Ltd., continues to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD is freely available through its website and is also distributed on CD-ROM to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. The project is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2011-2013

Funded by BCCCA/CRA (NYSE LIFFE contribution)
» University of Reading
(2011 to 2013)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley, Dr. Chris Turnbull
The London cocoa trade (NYSE -LIFFE), through CRA Ltd., continued to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The project aims to support the continuing breeding and conservation efforts by facilitating access to information on the origins, current location, characteristics of cocoa genetic resources. Although the ICGD is now primarily an online database, providing greater accessibility and allowing more rapid dissemination of new information, a CD-ROM version is available and is especially useful in areas with slow or unreliable internet access. Over 160 copies of ICGD 2012 (released in May 2012), were distributed to over 100 locations around the globe, and were also freely available at the 17th International Cocoa Research Conference (ICRC) in Cameroon (October 2012). Data has continued to be added to ICGD from a wide variety of sources, such as journal articles and conference proceedings, as well as data supplied directly from research institutes. User feedback has driven the continued development of ICGD, resulting in several new features being implemented that improve the search routines and the way in which data is presented. The Genetic Resource Evaluation and Selection Tool (GRest) has also been developed to work alongside ICGD. It impartially and unambiguously ranks accessions, based on information on the traits possessed by individuals and the genetic diversity they represent, allowing selection criteria to be based on specific local requirements. GRest is available on both the online and CD versions of ICGD. As the principle resource for cocoa germplasm information, ICGD has a central role outlined in ‘A Global Strategy for the Conservation and Use of Cacao Genetic Resources, as the Foundation for a Sustainable Cocoa Economy’, recently published by CacaoNet (the global network for cacao genetic resources). Two presentations about ICGD, the data it contains, and how it fits in the Global Strategy for the Conservation and Use of Cacao Genetic Resources, were presented at the 17th International Cocoa Research Conference (ICRC) organised by COPAL. An overview of the GRest program was also presented at the INGENIC workshop that followed the Conference.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2002-2004

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2002 to 2004)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Caroline Ford
The London cocoa trade, through BCCCA/CRA Ltd., continues to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD is freely available through its website and is also distributed on CD-ROM to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. The project is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2000-2002

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2000 to 2002)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End (to end Nov 2000)
The London cocoa trade, through BCCCA/CRA Ltd., continues to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD is freely available through its website and is also distributed on CD-ROM to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. During this phase of the project ICGD Online (www.icgd.rdg.ac.uk) has been considerably improved with the inclusion of new links to view photographs, full references, research station addresses and information on the origins of group names. New pages have been added that allow microsatellite data to be viewed and compared (currently exact matches and possible parents). The project is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1988-89

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1988 to 1989)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1987-88

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1987 to 1988)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1989-90

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1989 to 1990)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

An Investigation in to the Physiological and Genetic Basis of Establishment of Cocoa Clones.

Funded by CRA* and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock), STCP
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of Reading
» IITA
(2008 to 2011)
Researchers: Dr. A. Daymond, Prof. P.Hadley
A post-graduate research project co-funded by LNV (Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme) and STCP, and administered by BCCCA/CRA Ltd, to investigate the importance of factors such as rootstock x variety effects and physiological performance of the variety during establishment and early growth, especially under drought conditions.

An Investigation in to the Effects of Vegetative Propagation and Juvenility on Cocoa Vigour and Implications for Breeding Strategies, Nursery Management and Distribution of Genetic Resources.

Funded by CRA* and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock)
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of Reading
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2007 to 2011)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley, Dr. P. Tricker
A post-graduate research project to investigate the effects of juvenility, reinvigoration and disruption to the flow of nutrients and water at the graft union on budding success and growth rates of budded plants with a view to understanding why seedling plants perform better than genetically identical plants derived from them.

Support for CacaoNet.

Funded by CRA* and Bioversity, Mars, USDA, WCF
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» Bioversity International
(Ongoing project; started in 2005)
Support towards meetings and other activities associated with the development of a global strategy for the conservation and use of cacao genetic resources.

Support for INGENIC.

Funded by CRA* and Bioversity, Mars, USDA
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» Bioversity International
(Ongoing project; started in 1994)
Support towards INGENIC newsletters, website and workshops which disseminate research findings on cocoa genetics and breeding to cocoa community.

Safeguarding the ICG,T.

Funded by CRA* and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock)
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2006 to 2010)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
A co-funded project with the Government of the Netherlands to carry out a major re-propagation programme and install reservoirs and an irrigation system to improve the security of germplasm held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad.

Field Establishment of Cocoa Clones through the Improvement of Agro-ecological Conditions.

Funded by CRA* and CFC and other co-financiers
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of Reading
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2005 to 2010)
Researchers: Prof. P. Hadley, Dr. A.J. Daymond
A PhD research project to evaluate the effects of shade, mulch and irrigation on the growth, development and physiology of different varieties of cocoa under field and controlled greenhouse conditions.

Co-financed activities as part of ‘Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement: a Participatory Approach’ (CFC/ICCO/IPGRI/Bioversity).

Funded by CRA* and CFC and other co-financiers
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» International Cocoa Organization
» Bioversity International
» Common Fund for Commodities
(2004 to 2010)
Co-financing and counterpart funding for activities at Cocoa Research Unit (Trinidad) and the Univ. of Reading which formed part of this global project which involved 14 institutions in West Africa, the Americas, SE Asia and Europe.

Securing a Sustainable Future for the International Cocoa Quarantine Centre through the Installation of Energy Saving Measures.

Funded by CRA* and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock)
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of Reading
(2008 to 2009)
Researchers: Dr. A. Daymond, Prof. P.Hadley
A jointly funded project with the Government of the Netherlands (Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme) to install energy saving thermal screens and refurbish the quarantine facilities. These measures have resulted in an energy saving of some 40% compared to previous years. The thermal screens also permit better shade/humidity control and result in improved plant growth.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2008

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2008 to 2008)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
CRA Ltd took over the responsibility from BCCCA for support to CRU in September 2008 and continued to provide funding for the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for a visiting scientist from CIRAD (M. Boccara). In addition to this core support, CRU received funding from WCF for the project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease and from USDA towards a collaborative activity also involving CIRAD to develop a DNA fingerprinting database for the cocoa collections of the Americas. CRU also received support from CFC and partner organisations for the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement; a Participatory Approach" for activities including the germplasm enhancement programme for resistance to Black Pod and Witches' Broom disease. CRU and CRA's application for support from the Dutch Sustainable Cocoa Fund (Dutch Buffer Stock Fund) for the project "Safeguarding the ICG,T: a global resource for the cocoa industry" was successful and the work to repropagate "at risk" germplasm and install irrigation at the site was initiated towards the end of the year. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2005 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2007

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2007 to 2007)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was` received for a visiting scientist from CIRAD (M. Boccara/P. Deberdt). In addition to this core support, CRU received funding from WCF for the project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease and from USDA towards a collaborative activity also involving CIRAD to develop a DNA fingerprinting database for the cocoa collections of the Americas, and also from GORTT/USDA for association mapping studies of the ICG, T collection. CRU also received support from CFC and partner organisations for the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement; a Participatory Approach" for activities including the germplasm enhancement programme for resistance to Black Pod and Witches' Broom disease. CRU received support from the Dutch Sustainable Cocoa Fund (Dutch Buffer Stock Fund) and CRA for the project "Safeguarding the ICG,T: a global resource for the cocoa industry" which invovled re-propagating "at risk" germplasm and constructing irrigation reservoirs at the genebank site. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Projects for research on quality/post-harvest factors were also continued thanks to support from the Dutch Buffer Stock Fund (quality attributes of the ICS clones), and links with the University of Hamburg, University of Towson and the Dept of Chemistry at UWI. Activities in 2007 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2006

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2006 to 2006)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for a visiting scientist from CIRAD (M. Boccara/P. Deberdt). In addition to this core support, CRU received funding from WCF for the project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease and from USDA towards a collaborative activity also involving CIRAD to develop a DNA fingerprinting database for the cocoa collections of the Americas. CRU also received support from CFC and partner organisations for the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement; a Participatory Approach" for activities including the germplasm enhancement programme for resistance to Black Pod and Witches' Broom disease. CRU received support from the Dutch Sustainable Cocoa Fund (Dutch Buffer Stock Fund) and CRA for the project "Safeguarding the ICG,T: a global resource for the cocoa industry" which invovled re-propagating "at risk" germplasm and constructing irrigation reservoirs at the genebank site. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. New projects for research on quality/post-harvest factors were also initiated thanks to support from the Dutch Buffer Stock Fund and a link with the University of Hambury. Activities in 2006 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2005

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2005 to 2005)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for a visiting scientist from CIRAD (M. Boccara). In addition to this core support, CRU received funding from WCF for the project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease and from USDA towards a collaborative activity also involving CIRAD to develop a DNA fingerprinting database for the cocoa collections of the Americas. CRU also received support from CFC and partner organisations for the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement; a Participatory Approach" for activities including the germplasm enhancement programme for resistance to Black Pod and Witches' Broom disease. CRU and CRA's application for support from the Dutch Sustainable Cocoa Fund (Dutch Buffer Stock Fund) for the project "Safeguarding the ICG,T: a global resource for the cocoa industry" was successful and the work to repropagate "at risk" germplasm and install irrigation at the site was initiated towards the end of the year. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2005 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

A short project to study the genetic diversity and structure of wild cacao populations using microsatellite markers.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of the West Indies
» University of Reading
(2004 to 2004)
Researchers: Prof. M. Wilkinson, Dr. D. Butler, Prof. P. Umaharan, Dr. N. Cryer
A post-doctoral research project to investigate the genetic diversity of 17 georeferenced wild cocoa populations using a novel approach to select microsatellite markers.

A short project to study the genetic diversity and structure of wild cacao populations using microsatellite markers.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of the West Indies
» University of Reading
(2004 to 2004)
Researchers: Prof. M. Wilkinson, Dr. D. Butler, Prof. P. Umaharan, Dr. N. Cryer
A post-doctoral research project to investigate the genetic diversity of 17 georeferenced wild cocoa populations using a novel approach to select microsatellite markers.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2004

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2004 to 2004)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for visiting scientists from CIRAD (M. Boccara and J-M Thevenin). The WCF (formerly ACRI) project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease continued work to confirm the reactions of some promising clones from the previous phase of the work (1998-2003). CRU initiated activities as part of the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement; a Participatory Approach" building on the research undertaken in the earlier CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project "Germplasm Conservation and Utilisation" but including germplasm enhancement for Witches' Broom resistance. CRU continued its invovlement in another CFC supported project "To establish the physical, chemical and organoleptic parameters differentiating fine and bulk cocoa". CRU also continued its invovlement in a project with USDA to develop a DNA fingerprinting database for all major cacao collections in the Americas. Initial results suggest that there is relatively little duplication of germplasm in the collection of original trees in Marper Farm,demonstating that this is a valuable reference for identification of cacao accessions. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2004 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Witches' Broom x Genotype Interactions.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(2002 to 2004)
Researcher: Dr. M.Shaw
A research project following on from the Witches Broom ring-test activity of the CFC/ICCO/Bioversity Conservation and Utilisation of Cacao Germplasm project. Different cocoa varieties were tested against strains of Witches' Broom (WB) fungus from different regions in S. America under controlled greenhouse conditions in the UK. It was established that although a variety might be resistant to one strain of WB, it could be quite susceptible to another.

Improving the Productivity and Sustainability of Cocoa Farms in West Africa Through Utilisation of Native Forest Trees in Agroforestry Systems

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Bangor
» IITA
» Forestry Research Institute of Ghana
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2000 to 2004)
Researcher: Dr. M. McDonald
A PhD research project to collate farmer knowledge and agronomic/physiological data on various native Ghanaian tree species and assess their potential as shade trees for cocoa.

The Genetic and Physiological Basis of Incompatibility in Cocoa.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1999 to 2004)
Researchers: Prof. M. Wilkinson, Prof. P. Hadley
This PhD research project involved studies of the recognition and rejection reactions in cocoa's unusual late-acting self-incompatibility mechanism using a combination of microscopy and molecular techniques.

Co-financed activities as part of ‘Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation: A Global Approach’ (CFC/ICCO/IPGRI)

Funded by BCCCA and CFC and other co-financiers
» International Cocoa Organization
» Bioversity International
» Common Fund for Commodities
(1998 to 2004)
Co-financing and counterpart funding for activities at Cocoa Research Unit (Trinidad) and the Univ. of Reading, which formed part of this global project which involved 11 institutions from West Africa, the Americas, SE Asia and Europe.

Cocoa Pod Borer Research 1995-2004

Funded by BCCCA and Co-funding towards SUCCESS CPB management project involving ASKINDO, USDA, USAID and WCF
» Imperial College
(1995 to 2004)
BCCCA support enabled a consultant to provide input on experimental design, management and data analysis to CPB projects to develop and implement integrated pest management control systems for this major pest in SE Asia.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2002

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2003 to 2003)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for visiting scientists from CIRAD (O. Sounigo and J-M Thevenin) and GORTT (V. Mooleedhar). Other projects include the American Cocoa Research Institute's project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease and the Common Fund for Commodities/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa germplasm conservation and utilisation: a global approach". A new collaborative project with USDA was initiated in 2001 to compile a genetic fingerprint database of germplasm in South American collections. CRU agreed to extract DNA from every accession in the ICG,T and send samples to USDA Beltsville for microsatellite analysis with an automatic sequencer. Other research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2001 included the continuation of the CRU/INIAP initiative to conserve the LCT-EEN material by replicating materials held in the field genebank at San Carlos, Ecuador for dissemination to EETP and CRU (via Barbados Quarantine Station), further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2003

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2003 to 2003)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for visiting scientists from CIRAD (M. Boccara and J-M Thevenin). The American Cocoa Research Institute's five year project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease was completed in July 2003 with the screening of over 1000 accessions, and was extended for a further year. The CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa Germplasm Conservation and Utilisation" came to an end in 2003 though activities on the germplasm enhancement trials and refinement of the CFC project collection continued. CRU continued its invovlement in another CFC supported project "To establish the physical, chemical and organoleptic parameters differentiating fine and bulk cocoa". CRU also participated in the project to develop a DNA fingerprinting database for all major cacao collections in the Americas by extracting DNA from ICG,T accessions for microsatellite analysis at USDA Beltsville. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2003 included the transfer to Trinidad of the remaining clones from the Barbados Quarantine Station which was scheduled for closure, further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2001

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2001 to 2001)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for visiting scientists from CIRAD (O. Sounigo and J-M Thevenin) and GORTT (V. Mooleedhar). Other projects include the American Cocoa Research Institute's project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease and the Common Fund for Commodities/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa germplasm conservation and utilisation: a global approach". A new collaborative project with USDA was initiated in 2001 to compile a genetic fingerprint database of germplasm in South American collections. CRU agreed to extract DNA from every accession in the ICG,T and send samples to USDA Beltsville for microsatellite analysis with an automatic sequencer. Other research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2001 included the continuation of the CRU/INIAP initiative to conserve the LCT-EEN material by replicating materials held in the field genebank at San Carlos, Ecuador for dissemination to EETP and CRU (via Barbados Quarantine Station), further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

The Development of a Cocoa Pest Management Simulation Model to Measure the Efficacy & Economic Return of Management Activities Against Cocoa Pod Borer, Rats, Mirid Bugs & Pod Diseases.

Funded by BCCCA
» Centre for Environmental Technology, Imperial College at Silwood Park
» University of Reading
(2000 to 2000)
Researchers: J. Mumford, P. Hadley, Dr. A.Leach, Dr. A.Daymond
A project to enhance a computer simulation model of the CPB for Indonesian cocoa production, which had been previously developed with BCCCA support, by incorporating elements to predict the pod development cycle, and estimate the net returns of management strategies. It is anticipated that the model can be used as a training tool to help extension workers to understand the dynamics of CPB infestation and how management options may shift to maintain optimal returns for farmers under different market conditions (labour costs/cocoa price).

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 2000

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2000 to 2000)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for visiting scientists from CIRAD (O. Sounigo and J-M Thevenin) and GORTT (V. Mooleedhar). Other projects include the American Cocoa Research Institute's project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease, the CAOBISCO project "Use of molecular markers to identify the genetic basis of resistance to Black Pod disease (Phytophthora) and identify early screening markers (completed September 2000) and the Common Fund for Commodities/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa germplasm conservation and utilisation: a global approach". Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 2000 included the continuation of the CRU/INIAP initiative to conserve the LCT-EEN material by replicating materials held in the field genebank at San Carlos, Ecuador for dissemination to EETP and CRU (via Barbados Quarantine Station), further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Collecting and Genetic Fingerprinting of Guyana Cocoa Material Using ISSR-PCR.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of the West of England
» University of Reading
(1999 to 1999)
Researcher: Prof.M.Wilkinson
A short project to study the levels of genetic diversity present in material collected by the Guyana Cocoa Initiative from uncultivated sources and also to genetically fingerprint the materials held in the Timehri Genebank.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1999

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1999 to 1999)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for visiting scientists from CIRAD (O. Sounigo and J-M Thevenin) and GORTT (V. Mooleedhar). Other projects include the American Cocoa Research Institute's project to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease, the CAOBISCO project "Use of molecular markers to identify the genetic basis of resistance to Black Pod disease (Phytophthora) and identify early screening markers and the Common Fund for Commodities/ICCO/IPGRI project "Cocoa germplasm conservation and utilisation: a global approach". Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 1999 included a CRU/INIAP initiative to conserve the LCT-EEN material by replicating materials held in the field genebank at San Carlos, Ecuador for dissemination to EETP and CRU (via Barbados Quarantine Station), further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Guyana Cocoa Research Initiative

Funded by BCCCA
» University of the West of England
(1995 to 1999)
Researcher: Dr. M. Johnston
Support to allow students to participate in summer expeditions to collect wild cocoa material in Guyana and establish it in the National Genebank at Timehri. An associated genetic fingerprinting study showed that some of the material collected was very different to most other accessions held in international genebanks.

Economic Model for CPB

Funded by BCCCA
» Centre for Environmental Technology, Imperial College at Silwood Park
(1998 to 1998)
Researchers: Prof. J. Mumford, Dr. A.Leach
A short project to develop a model to estimate the effects of Complete, Frequent, Regular Harvesting (CFRH) and/or pesticide applications on the dry weight of the cocoa harvested. The model used data generated by the ACRI/ASKINDO/BCCCA Cocoa Pod Borer Management Project in Indonesia. The model shows how CPB can be effectively suppressed by the removal of ripe pods on a weekly basis to substantially increase yield compared to monthly harvest due to the effect on the CPB alone. However, the effects of CRFH are even greater when the losses due to rat and Black Pod damage are also taken into account. The model predicts that pesticide application would have to take place on a very frequent basis (weekly) in a monthly harvesting regime to produce yields comparable to those obtainable with a weekly harvesting regime.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1998

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1998 to 1998)
Researcher: Dr. David Butler
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Additional support was received for visiting scientists from CIRAD (O. Sounigo and J-M Thevenin), GORTT (V. Mooleedhar), Nestle (J. Reneau) and CRIG (A. Karimu). The American Cocoa Research Institute's project to evaluate genotypic variation in cocoa butter content of seeds came to an end in 1998 and a new project was started to evaluate accessions from ICG,T for their reaction to Witches' Broom disease. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation. Activities in 1998 included further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and identification purposes using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Barbados Quarantine Station

Funded by BCCCA
» University of the West Indies
(1980 to 1998)
BCCCA used to provide support for a greenhouse facility in Barbados to quarantine materials entering the ICG,T. Since 1998 this function has been undertaken by the International Cocoa Quarantine Centre, University of Reading.

A rapid PCR diagnostic test to identify Black Pod pathogens (Phytophthora palmivora, P. megakarya)

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Aberystwyth
(1997 to 1997)
Researcher: Dr. G.Griffiths
A short project to develop a PCR method to diagnose the causal agent of Black Pod infections from fresh or dried samples of pod husk.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1997

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1997 to 1997)
Researchers: Prof. John Spence (to August 1997), Dr. David Butler (from September 1997)
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the core activities at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Additional support was received from CIRAD for two visiting scientists (O. Sounigo and J-M Thevenin) and from the American Cocoa Research Institute for a project to evaluate genotypic variation in cocoa butter content of seeds. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation; Data management; Research and Training; Publications and International Collaboration. Activities in 1997 included a study of the morphological variation in the germplasm collected from the Maya mountains of Southern Belize, further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and evaluation for characters including those of economic interest (e.g. bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance),sensory evaluation studies, studies on the genetic basis of disease resistance and germplasm enhancement (pre-breeding) to develop a population with a high level of resistance to Black Pod and Witches’ Broom diseases.

Revision of the ‘Cocoa Beans: Chocolate Manufacturers' Quality Requirements’ booklet

Funded by BCCCA
» BCCCA
(1996 to 1996)
The revision of BCCCA’s booklet ‘Cocoa Beans: Chocolate Manufacturers’ Quality Requirements’ was undertaken by Dr. John Clapperton, a well known expert in cocoa flavour and other aspects of cocoa quality, in consultation with industry experts. The resulting Fourth Edition of the book was published in October 1996 and has continued to be a well regarded source of information on aspects of quality management including Good Agricultural Practice and Good Manufacturing Practice, incorporating new knowledge and understanding of factors affecting flavour, food hygiene and IPM.

Photographs of the BAL Germplasm collection

Funded by BCCCA
» BCCCA
(1996 to 1996)
A short project to photograph the accessions in the BAL Plantations collection for inclusion in the ICGD.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1996

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1996 to 1996)
Researcher: Prof. John Spence
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago with additional support from CIRAD for visiting scientists and with funding from the American Cocoa Research Institute for a project to evaluate genotypic variation in cocoa butter content of seeds. The research continued to be centred around the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T). Agreement was reached to use the remaining part of the European Development Fund grant (which established the ICG,T) to support the "International Workshop on the Utilisation of the Genetic Resources of the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad" held in June 1996 . The event brought breeders and other researchers from many cocoa producing countries for discussions on pre-breeding, quarantine,data accessibility and training needs amongst other topics. It also provided an opportunity for discussions on the IPGRI proposal "Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation- A Global Approach" which was being developed for submission to CFC via the ICCO. Research at CRU continued to be organised under the following work programmes - Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation; Data management; Research and Training; Publications and International Collaboration. Activities in 1996 included participation in initiatives to collect germplasm from the Maya mountains of Southern Belize, further characterisation of ICG,T accessions for genetic diversity analysis and evaluation for characters including bean characteristics, fat content, pod hardness and disease resistance.

Review of potential research needs for the cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella.

Funded by BCCCA
» Imperial College
(1995 to 1995)
Researcher: J.D. Mumford & B.J. Wood
BCCCA commissioned a review of potential research needs for the cocoa pod borer. The objectives were to 1.)outline previous research carried out on CPB in Southeast Asia 2.) to describe current and further research on CPB and 3.) to describe measures which have been, and are being, taken to contain the CPB problem or to live with it.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1995

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1995 to 1995)
Researcher: Prof. John Spence
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago with additional support from CIRAD for two visiting scientists and with funding from the American Cocoa Research Institute for a project to evaluate genotypic variation in cocoa butter content of seeds. The research continued to be centred around the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) which was established with support from the European Development Fund and which had been recognised as an international collection by IBPGR/IPGRI. The generous support from the European Union came to an end in 1994 on schedule but a number of students who had been supported by this grant completed their studies in 1995. Research at CRU continues to be organised under the work programmes are Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation; Data management; Research and Training; Publications and International Collaboration. Activities in 1995 included participation in initiatives to collect/transfer germplasm from Ecuador and French Guiana, studies of environmental effects on phenotype expression, use of molecular markers to assess genetic diversity, confirm identity and in genome mapping, field and laboratory based evaluation of disease resistance, and the influence of fermentation on flavour and quality characteristics.

Using an NMR method to analyse cocoa butter content of samples from BAL Plantations

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
» BAL Plantations Sdn Bhd
(1994 to 1995)
Researchers: Prof. P. Hadley, Dr. M. End

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1994

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1994 to 1994)
Researcher: Prof. John Spence
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The research continued to be centred around the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) which was established with support from the European Development Fund and which had been recognised as an international collection by IBPGR/IPGRI. The generous support from the European Union came to an end in 1994 on schedule and a number of the post-graduate students that had been supported by this grant completed their studies. Mr. Mooleedhar's secondment from the Ministry also came to an end, though GORTT kindly permitted him to continue to carry out the duties of Agronomist with no charge to CRU. As the EU funding came to a close, it was agreed that an evaluation of the project should be conducted and this Evaluation Mission was carried out by Drs. Engels and Dyce. One of the recommendations made in the Evaluation report was that greater emphasis should be placed on CRU's work programmes and a new format for the Annual Report was adopted to reflect this. These work programmes are Conservation; Characterisation; Evaluation and Utilisation; Data management; Research and Training; Publications and International Collaboration. Activities in 1994 included the production of two CRU Newsletters, analysis of pod indices data and isozyme/RAPD data, development of a new propagation technique, and evaluation of germplasm for Black Pod and Witches' Broom diseases together with further research on the organisms causing these diseases.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1993

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1993 to 1993)
Researcher: Prof. John Spence
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The research continued to be centred around the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) which was established with support from the European Development Fund and which had been recognised as an international collection by IBPGR/IPGRI. CRU had also benefitted from support from the European Economic Community towards a number of post-graduate students from the ACP countries and two visiting scientists from CIRAD (Dr. M. Ducamp and Mr. O. Sounigo). In 1993, research focussed on assessing phenotypic diversity within the ICG,T using morphological descriptors (led by F. Bekele) and its genetic diversity using isozymesand RAPD analysis (O. Sounigo, Y. Christopher, S. Misir). Research on aspects of cocoa physiology, including responses to drought and high light levels continued and the pathology section studied relationships between leaf and pod resistance to Black Pod infection and aspects of Witches' Broom infection. Dr. J. Warren (breeder/geneticist) left CRU in June 1993.

Evaluation of the Virobacterial Agglutination Test for Cocoa Shoot Virus

Funded by BCCCA
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
» University of Reading
(1992 to 1993)
Researchers: Prof. P. Hadley, Dr. Ann Parker

Fungal Biomass Distribution in Witches' Broom Disease of Cocoa

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Liverpool
(1989 to 1993)
Researcher: Dr. K. Hardwick
A PhD project to investigate fungal biomass distribution in Witches' Broom Disease of Cocoa

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1992

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1992 to 1992)
Researcher: Prof. John Spence
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The research continued to be centred around the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) which was established with support from the European Development Fund and which had been recognised as an international collection by IBPGR. CRU had also benefitted from support from the European Economic Community towards a number of post-graduate students from the ACP countries and a visiting scientist from CIRAD. In 1992, research focussed on characterising the accessions in the ICG,T using morphological descriptors (led by F. Bekele) and isozymes (Y. Christopher, E. Johnson, F. Hosein, J. Warren) and evaluating their resistance to rodents (D. Emamdie, J. Warren) and studies of the breeding system (K.Kalai, J.Warren). Aspects of pathology research included fungicide application methods (T. Sreenivasan) and further studies of the biology of Phytophthora spp. (Black Pod Rot) and Crinipellis (now Moniliophthora) perniciosa. CRU organised a Workshop entitled "Conservation, Characterisation and Utilisation of Cocoa Genetic Resources in the 21st Century" which was attended by over 50 delegates from 22 different countries.

Testing for WB Resistance

Funded by BCCCA
» Imperial College
(1990 to 1992)
Researchers: Dr. B. Wheeler, Dr. Mark Luterbacher
A research project to develop methods to screen genotypes for their reaction to different strains of Moniliophthora perniciosa (formerly Crinipellis perniciosa), the fungus which causes Witches' broom disease.

A study into the potential for enhancing productivity in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) through exploitation of physiological and genetic variation.

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
» BAL Plantations Sdn Bhd
» University of the West Indies
(1989 to 1992)
Researcher: Prof. P. Hadley

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1991

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1991 to 1991)
Researcher: Prof. John Spence
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The research continued to be centred around the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) which was established with support from the European Development Fund and which had been recognised as an international collection by IBPGR. CRU had also benefitted from support from the European Economic Community towards a number of post-graduate students from the ACP countries. The research group at CRU was complemented by the appointment of a new breeder/geneticist, Dr. John Warren, and visiting scientists from CIRAD (Dr. M. Ducamp) and the University of Reading (Dr. T. Pettitt). BCCCA provided support for two staff members, Felicia Hosein and Elizabeth Johnson, to spend 3 months at the Scottish Crop Research Institute gaining knowledge on the use of RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) technology. During 1991 CRU staff and students continued to focus their research on the accessions of the ICG,T including morphological and biochemical characterisation, inheritance of bean size characteristics and resistance to Phytophthora in leaf tissue. Pathology research included epidemiology of Phytophthora spp. and the identification of a new pod disease (Ceratocystis paradoxa). Students also carried out research on aspects of cocoa physiololgy including the effects of shade on growth.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1990

Funded by BCCCA and GORTT
» University of the West Indies
(1990 to 1990)
Researcher: Prof. John Spence
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The research continued to be centred around the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) which was established with support from the European Development Fund and which had been recognised as an international collection by IBPGR. During this period, the Genetic Resources programme (led by Dr. Kennedy and Mrs Gonsalves) continued to focus on the morphological and isozyme characterisation of the accessions in the ICG,T. Some work was undertaken on cocoa physiology including an MPhil study of drought resistance and research by J.H.H. Yapp, a visiting scientist from University of Reading. The Pathology programme (led by Dr. Sreenivasan) continued to investigate the biology of Black Pod and Witches Broom diseases. Dr. T. Pettitt, another visiting scientist from the University of Reading, undertook research on copper-impregnated collars as a potential way to control black pod disease. BCCCA also provided additional support for work on isozymes and to support a Botanist/Collector who was appointed in late 1989 to acquire new accessions for the ICG,T.

Research to Identify the Origins of Cocoa Flavour Characteristics

Funded by BCCCA and BAL Plantations, Sabah, Malaysia
» University of the West Indies
(1990 to 1992)
Researcher: Dr. John Clapperton
The BCCCA Flavour project sought to gain a better understanding of the factors influencing cocoa flavour, and particularly the production of undesirable off-flavours, and exploring ways in which these may be minimised or avoided. During the project protocols were established for post-harvest processing, including small-scale fermentation techniques which could enable samples as small as 0.75kg beans to be fermented in a heap of mixed beans with highly satisfactory results. Protocols were also developed for tasting of standard liquor samples by trained panelists allowing flavour to be evaluated on a reproduceable basis. The research found a very clear flavour difference between families of genotypes and demonstrated that flavour was influenced strongly by the mother tree, irrespective of the pollen donor, and that flavour characteristics are heritable.

Primitive Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1989-1990

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1989 to 1990)
Researchers: Paul Hadley, Michelle End
This was an extension to a pilot project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The database of Primitive Cocoa Germplasm was expanded to include selected material and data on clone characteristics. The project has continued to develop and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

Primitive Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1988-1989

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1988 to 1989)
Researcher: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth
This was a pilot project to collate information on cocoa genetic resources with a view to making the information more widely available to the cocoa research community. The first output from the project, released as ‘The Catalogue of Primitive Cocoa Germplasm’ in 1989, was distributed in computerised form to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. It contained information on the origins and current distribution of cocoa germplasm collected from the wild since 1938.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1987-89

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1987 to 1989)
Researchers: Dr. A.J. Kennedy (Head to Nov. 1988), Prof. L.A. Wilson (acting Head Dec. 1988-July 1989), Prof. J.A. Spence (from August 1989).
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The research continued to be centred around the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) which was established with support from the European Development Fund and which had been recognised as an international collection by IBPGR. During this period, the Genetic Resources programme (led by Dr. Kennedy and Mrs Gonsalves) continued to focus on the morphological and isozyme characterisation of the accessions in the ICG,T. Some work was undertaken on cocoa physiology including an MPhil study of drought resistance and research by J.H.H. Yapp, a visiting scientist from University of Reading. The Pathology programme (led by Dr. Sreenivasan) continued to investigate the biology of Black Pod and Witches Broom diseases. Dr. T. Pettitt, another visiting scientist from the University of Reading, undertook research on copper-impregnated collars as a potential way to control black pod disease. BCCCA also provided additional support for work on isozymes and to support a Botanist/Collector who was appointed in late 1989 to acquire new accessions for the ICG,T.

Reading Quarantine Facility 1985-86

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1985 to 1986)
Researcher: Prof. P.Hadley
The initial project to transfer the Kew Cocoa Quarantine Collection to the University of Reading and establish a new quarantine service to ensure the safe movement of cocoa germplasm around the world - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1984-86

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1984 to 1986)
Researcher: Dr. A.J. Kennedy (Head)
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association CCCA and later the BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The research effort was organised under three major programmes: Agronomy, Disease Management and Genetic Resources. The main focus for the research was on the extensive collections of germplasm which were distributed across several sites within Trinidad. The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) recognised the global importance of this material and with the approval of an application for support to the European Development Fund, the process of bringing together all of this germplasm at a single site was initiated to create the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T). During this period, the Genetic Resources programme (led by Dr. A.J. Kennedy with Mr. Yidana working on an IBPGR internship) focussed on the description of pod and bean morphology of accessions in the ICG,T and isozyme variation in cocoa accessions. The Agronomy programme (led by Mr Muttschneller to August 1985 and then by Mrs C. Gonsalves, with Dr. Fagan leading the Jamaica station until July 1986) focussed on propagating and planting materials at the University Cocoa Research Station (UCRS) following the closure of the Las Hermanas Field Station. The Pathology programme (led by Dr. Sreenivasan) continued to investigate the biology of Black Pod and Witches Broom diseases.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1980-82

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1980 to 1982)
Researcher: Dr. E.F. Iton/Dr. A.J. Kennedy
The UK chocolate industry, through its trade association CCCA and later the BCCCA, and with support generated from the CRA trust fund, continued to support the work at the Cocoa Research Unit in Trinidad together with the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The research effort was organised under three major programmes: Agronomy, Disease Management and Genetic Resources. The main focus for the research was on the extensive collections of germplasm which were distributed across several sites within Trinidad. The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) recognised the global importance of this material and with the approval of an application for support to the European Development Fund, the process of bringing together all of this germplasm at a single site was initiated to create the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad.

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1970-79

Funded by BCCCA and GORTT
» University of the West Indies
(1970 to 1979)
Researcher: Dr. E.F. Iton/Dr. D.B. Murray
The Cocoa Research Association was established in 1973 to manage a Trust Fund set up by the late John Cadbury to support cocoa research, especially work carried out in Trinidad. [Summarised from Fifty Years of Cocoa Research in Trinidad & Tobago, Posnette A.F. (1986)] The Cacao Research Scheme, originally set up under ICTA in 1930, remained under the aegis of the University of the West Indies from 1960 onwards. The research programme continued to have a more regional focus and included further collecting missions in the Amazon basin and evaluation of progeny trials though financial stringency limited recording of trial data (W.S. Chalmers, L.L.de Verteuil), physiology and environmental effects (R.Fordham), pests and diseases including Ceratocystsis and Phytophthora diseases( T.N. Sreenivasan) and post-harvest processing and biochemistry (A. Lopez and V.C. Quesnel).

Activities at the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad 1960-69

Funded by BCCCA and GORTT
» University of the West Indies
(1060 to 1969)
Researcher: Prof F. Hardy/Dr. D.B. Murray
[Summarised from Fifty Years of Cocoa Research in Trinidad & Tobago, Posnette A.F. (1986)] The Cacao Research Scheme, originally set up under ICTA in 1930, came under the aegis of the University of the West Indies from 1960 onwards. The research programme was re-orientated towards a more regional focus and new field trials were planted at Las Hermanas (rather than River Estate). Research focussed on evaluation of new introductions, progeny trials, disease resistance trials and incompatibility studies(B.G.D. Bartley 1951-70, D.B. Murrary 1950-77), collection of new materials from Ecuador (W.S. Chalmers 1968-73), physiology and environmental effects (D.B. Murrary, Sale 1963-69), pests and diseases including Ceratocystsis ( E.F. Iton 1957-79, L.W. Small) and Black Pod (J.Spence 1965-66), weed control (L. Kasasian) and post-harvest processing ( L.A. Griffiths 1956-61, A. Lopez 1967-1970 , V.C. Quesnel, 1961-78).

The Cacao Research Scheme in Trinidad 1930-1960

Funded by BCCCA and Govts of Ceylon, Gold Coast, Grenada, Nigeria and Trinidad and the chocolate industry (Cadbury Bros Ltd., J.S.Fry and Sons Ltd and Rowntree and Co.
» Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad
(1930 to 1959)
Researcher: Prof F. Hardy and Prof E.E. Cheesman
[Summarised from Fifty Years of Cocoa Research in Trinidad & Tobago, Posnette A.F. (1986)] The genesis of the Cacao Research Scheme at the Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture was in 1927 when the Committee, formed by the British Government, recommended the formation of Agricultural Research Stations to serve various regions in the tropics by doing long range research not usually covered by agricultural departments of colonial governments.The Cacao Research Scheme was eventually approved in 1930 and was jointly funded by public and private contributors. Research was conducted on a variety of aspects of the crop including its botany and genetics (B.G.D. Bartley 1951-70,E.E. Cheesman 1930-46, F.W.Cope 1937-40, K.S. Dodds 1937-49, F.J. Pound, R.K. McKee 1940-42, A.F. Posnette 1936-49,Voelcker 1935-37), physiology and soil science ( J.A. McDonald 1930-36, H. Evans 1949-52, F. Hardy 1924-76, G. Havord 1950-57, E.C. Humphries 1937-45, H. Lees 1947-49, Maliphant 1953-71, D.B. Murrary 1950-77, R. Nichols 1954-64, J.W. Porteous 1947-1950, E. Pyke 1930-34, G. Rodrigues 1939-70, T.E. Wasowicz 1950-1952), pests and diseases (R.E.D. Baker 1933-54, E.Mc.C Callan 1937-50, W.T. Dale 1943-53, R.G. Fennah 1951-1958, P.C. Holliday 1949-55, E.F. Iton 1957-79, T.W. Kirkpatrick 1946-60 ), economics (A.L. Jolly 1939-50, C.Y. Shephard 1924-47 and post-harvest processing (K.W. De Witt 1950-56, L.A. Griffiths 1956-61, Haworth 1947-50). Research activities included studies of the fruitfulness of cacao (including the incompatibility system), Witches' broom disease, growth flushes/cherelle wilt, selection and evaluation of the ICS clones, propagation methods, mineral nutrition and deficiency symptoms, fermentation systems and collecting germplasm.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1998

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1998 to 1998)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
This long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International) and is supported by the London cocoa trade. The ICGD is freely available in computerised and printed formats to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. It has become a key resource for the cocoa research community and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1997

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1997 to 1997)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
This long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International) and is supported by the London cocoa trade. The ICGD is freely available in computerised and printed formats to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. It has become a key resource for the cocoa research community and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1996

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1996 to 1996)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Michelle End
This long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International) and is supported by the London cocoa trade. The ICGD is freely available in computerised and printed formats to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. It has become a key resource for the cocoa research community and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1995

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1995 to 1995)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
The London cocoa trade, through BCCCA/CRA Ltd., continued to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources. In this phase of the project, a second MS-DOS version of the ICGD was distributed widely to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources. The project has continued to develop and is now a key resource for the cocoa research community, funded by NYSE LIFFE and administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1994

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1994 to 1996)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
In 1994, the London cocoa trade agreed that its contributions to the BCCCA research programme should be used to support the International Cocoa Germplasm Database project which had been initiated in 1988 to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD was distributed in computerised form to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. [The project has continued and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd].

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 1993

Funded by BCCCA
» University of Reading
(1993 to 1993)
Researchers: Dr. Paul Hadley/Dr. Michael Wadsworth, Dr. Michelle End
The International Cocoa Germplasm Database project continued to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources and establish itself as a key resource for those interested in cocoa breeding and genetic resources. It continued to build links with the cocoa genebanks and research institutes who contributed the data on the characteristics of their accessions and developed software to help make this information more easily accessible. The project has continued and is currently funded by NYSE LIFFE and is administered by CRA Ltd.
"Supporting the global effort to develop better planting materials for farmers and advance our knowledge towards the sustainable growing of cocoa"