CRA Research Projects (22)

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CFC/ICCO Integrated Managements of Cocoa Pests and Pathogens in Africa: Controlling indigenous pests and diseases and prevent ing the introduction of exogenous ones.

Funded by CRA and CFC/ICCO/national research institutes and industry partners
(2013 to 2017)
Researcher: Dr. A. Cudjoe
The project aims to strengthen in-country and regional capacity for improved pest surveillance for prevention of spread, early detection, eradication and continued management of existing and invasive pests and pathogens. Crop and pest management strategies, as an integral part of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) is to be adopted as the main methodology to reduce crop losses by indigenous pests and diseases and to prevent the spread of both indigenous and exogenous pests and pathogens in the participating countries. Additionally, the project addresses the increasing threat of the spread of exogenous pests and pathogens to the African. The project will put in place measures to reduce the risk of the spread of exogenous pests and diseases such as Witches’ Broom (WB), Frosty Pod Rot (FP) - Moniliophthora roreri and Cocoa Pod Borer (CPB) - Conopomorpha cramerella through capacity building and awareness-raising.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2013-2015

Funded by CRA
» University of Reading
(Ongoing project; started in 2013)
Researcher: Prof Paul Hadley/Dr. Chris Turnbull
The London cocoa trade, through CRA Ltd., continues to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The ICGD is freely available through its website (www.icgd.reading.ac.uk)and is also distributed on CD-ROM to cocoa research institutes and others with an interest in cacao genetic resources, and has become a key resource for the cocoa research community. The project is currently funded by ICE Futures Europe and is administered by CRA Ltd.

International Cocoa Quarantine Centre at the University of Reading (ICQC,R)

Funded by CRA and USDA
» University of Reading
(2016 to 2021)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley, Dr. Andrew Daymond, Dr. Andy Wetten
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

International Cocoa Quarantine Centre, University of Reading 2011-2016

Funded by CRA and USDA
» University of Reading
(Ongoing project; started in 2011)
Researchers: Prof. P.Hadley, Dr. Andrew Daymond
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

International Cocoa Quarantine Centre, University of Reading 2008-2011

Funded by CRA and USDA
» University of Reading
(2008 to 2011)
Researchers: Prof. P.Hadley, Dr. Andrew Daymond
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the safe distribution of cocoa germplasm via the quarantine facility at the University of Reading since 1982. Currently, CRA Ltd and USDA are jointly supporting the ICQC,R which provides the only international intermediate quarantine service for the safe movement of cocoa germplasm - one of the key ‘building block’ resources for the cocoa research community.

International Cocoa Germplasm Database (ICGD) 2011-2013

Funded by BCCCA/CRA (NYSE LIFFE contribution)
» University of Reading
(2011 to 2013)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley, Dr. Chris Turnbull
The London cocoa trade (NYSE -LIFFE), through CRA Ltd., continued to support this long standing project to collate and disseminate information on cocoa genetic resources which was initiated in 1988 in liaison with IPGRI (now Bioversity International). The project aims to support the continuing breeding and conservation efforts by facilitating access to information on the origins, current location, characteristics of cocoa genetic resources. Although the ICGD is now primarily an online database, providing greater accessibility and allowing more rapid dissemination of new information, a CD-ROM version is available and is especially useful in areas with slow or unreliable internet access. Over 160 copies of ICGD 2012 (released in May 2012), were distributed to over 100 locations around the globe, and were also freely available at the 17th International Cocoa Research Conference (ICRC) in Cameroon (October 2012). Data has continued to be added to ICGD from a wide variety of sources, such as journal articles and conference proceedings, as well as data supplied directly from research institutes. User feedback has driven the continued development of ICGD, resulting in several new features being implemented that improve the search routines and the way in which data is presented. The Genetic Resource Evaluation and Selection Tool (GRest) has also been developed to work alongside ICGD. It impartially and unambiguously ranks accessions, based on information on the traits possessed by individuals and the genetic diversity they represent, allowing selection criteria to be based on specific local requirements. GRest is available on both the online and CD versions of ICGD. As the principle resource for cocoa germplasm information, ICGD has a central role outlined in ‘A Global Strategy for the Conservation and Use of Cacao Genetic Resources, as the Foundation for a Sustainable Cocoa Economy’, recently published by CacaoNet (the global network for cacao genetic resources). Two presentations about ICGD, the data it contains, and how it fits in the Global Strategy for the Conservation and Use of Cacao Genetic Resources, were presented at the 17th International Cocoa Research Conference (ICRC) organised by COPAL. An overview of the GRest program was also presented at the INGENIC workshop that followed the Conference.

Cocoa Research Centre

Funded by CRA and Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, CIRAD and a number of other supporters
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 2010)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
Core support for the Cocoa Research Centre to conserve, characterise and utilise the germplasm held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad.

Verification of Genotypes in the ICG,T by Genetic Fingerprinting.

Funded by CRA* and GORTT, CIRAD
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1992)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the work at cocoa research work in Trinidad since the 1940's. CRA Ltd and the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago are jointly supporting the core activites at the Cocoa Research Unit including the ongoing programme to ensure that all the replicates of each accession in the ICG,T are correctly identified using genetic fingerprinting techniques. This work is being undertaken in cooperation with a CIRAD scientist based at CRU and with USDA ARS scientists. There is considerable movement of material into and out of the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T), which could potentially result in the misplacement of cocoa material. As overseer of this important cocoa germplasm collection, CRU is systematically checking accessions in the ICG,T, to confirm the identity of already established accessions and therefore avoid mistakes in identity of material used in research, and material distributed to the cocoa community world-wide. The increasing transfer of material among different countries necessitates careful attention to accurate labelling if research objectives are to be met, and results are to be trusted and transferable.

Morphological Characterisation of the Genotypes in the ICG,T

Funded by CRA* and GORTT,CIRAD
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1983)
Researchers: Mrs. F. Bekele, Prof. P. Umaharan
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the work at cocoa research work in Trinidad since the 1940's. CRA Ltd and the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago are jointly supporting the core activites at the Cocoa Research Unit including the on-going programme to collate and analyse data on leaf, flower and pod characteristics from accessions in the ICG,T to ensure clonal identity, study genetic diversity and facilitate selection of promising accessions for further evaluation.

Biochemical Characterisation/Diversity Studies of the Genotypes in the ICG,T.

Funded by CRA* and GORTT, CIRAD,USDA
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1980)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the work at cocoa research work in Trinidad since the 1940's. CRA Ltd and the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago are jointly supporting the core activites at the Cocoa Research Unit including the ongoing programme to use genetic fingerprinting and other biochemical marker techniques to study genetic diversity and prioritise accessions for conservation and/or further evaluation. This work is being undetaken in conjunction with scientists from CIRAD and USDA.

Conservation of Cocoa Germplasm in the ICG,T.

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1946)
Researcher: Prof. P.Umaharan
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the work at cocoa research work in Trinidad since the 1940's. CRA Ltd and the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago are jointly supporting the core activites at the Cocoa Research Unit including maintaining the largest and most genetically diverse field collection of internationally available germplasm as a resource for the global cocoa community.

Collection/Distribution of Germplasm in the ICG,T.

Funded by CRA* and GORTT
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1940)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
The UK industry, through BCCCA and CRA Ltd, have been supporting the work at cocoa research work in Trinidad since the 1940's. CRA Ltd and the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago are jointly supporting the core activites at the Cocoa Research Unit including the introduction of new germplasm to ICG,T and the preparation of micropropagated materials and budwood for distribution, principally via ICQC,R.

Germplasm enhancement for Witches' Broom and Black Pod Resistance.

Funded by CRA* and CFC and other co-financiers
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(Ongoing project; started in 1998)
Researchers: Dr. D. Iwaro, Dr. D. Butler
Developing populations with enhanced resistance to major diseases using genetically divergent parental materials.

An Investigation in to the Physiological and Genetic Basis of Establishment of Cocoa Clones.

Funded by CRA* and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock), STCP
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of Reading
» IITA
(2008 to 2011)
Researchers: Dr. A. Daymond, Prof. P.Hadley
A post-graduate research project co-funded by LNV (Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme) and STCP, and administered by BCCCA/CRA Ltd, to investigate the importance of factors such as rootstock x variety effects and physiological performance of the variety during establishment and early growth, especially under drought conditions.

An Investigation in to the Effects of Vegetative Propagation and Juvenility on Cocoa Vigour and Implications for Breeding Strategies, Nursery Management and Distribution of Genetic Resources.

Funded by CRA* and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock)
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of Reading
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2007 to 2011)
Researchers: Prof. Paul Hadley, Dr. P. Tricker
A post-graduate research project to investigate the effects of juvenility, reinvigoration and disruption to the flow of nutrients and water at the graft union on budding success and growth rates of budded plants with a view to understanding why seedling plants perform better than genetically identical plants derived from them.

Support for CacaoNet.

Funded by CRA* and Bioversity, Mars, USDA, WCF
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» Bioversity International
(Ongoing project; started in 2005)
Support towards meetings and other activities associated with the development of a global strategy for the conservation and use of cacao genetic resources.

Support for INGENIC.

Funded by CRA* and Bioversity, Mars, USDA
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» Bioversity International
(Ongoing project; started in 1994)
Support towards INGENIC newsletters, website and workshops which disseminate research findings on cocoa genetics and breeding to cocoa community.

Safeguarding the ICG,T.

Funded by CRA* and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock)
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(2006 to 2010)
Researcher: Prof. P. Umaharan
A co-funded project with the Government of the Netherlands to carry out a major re-propagation programme and install reservoirs and an irrigation system to improve the security of germplasm held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad.

Field Establishment of Cocoa Clones through the Improvement of Agro-ecological Conditions.

Funded by CRA* and CFC and other co-financiers
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of Reading
» Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
(2005 to 2010)
Researchers: Prof. P. Hadley, Dr. A.J. Daymond
A PhD research project to evaluate the effects of shade, mulch and irrigation on the growth, development and physiology of different varieties of cocoa under field and controlled greenhouse conditions.

Co-financed activities as part of ‘Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement: a Participatory Approach’ (CFC/ICCO/IPGRI/Bioversity).

Funded by CRA* and CFC and other co-financiers
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» International Cocoa Organization
» Bioversity International
» Common Fund for Commodities
(2004 to 2010)
Co-financing and counterpart funding for activities at Cocoa Research Unit (Trinidad) and the Univ. of Reading which formed part of this global project which involved 14 institutions in West Africa, the Americas, SE Asia and Europe.

Securing a Sustainable Future for the International Cocoa Quarantine Centre through the Installation of Energy Saving Measures.

Funded by CRA* and LNV Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme (Dutch Buffer Stock)
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of Reading
(2008 to 2009)
Researchers: Dr. A. Daymond, Prof. P.Hadley
A jointly funded project with the Government of the Netherlands (Sustainable Cocoa Subsidy Scheme) to install energy saving thermal screens and refurbish the quarantine facilities. These measures have resulted in an energy saving of some 40% compared to previous years. The thermal screens also permit better shade/humidity control and result in improved plant growth.

Collecting Cacao Germplasm in Belize

Funded by CRA*
*(transferred from BCCCA in 2008)
» University of the West Indies
(1994 to 1997)
Researchers: Dr. D. Butler, Dr. V. Mooleedhar
A series of short expeditions in 1994, 1996 and 1997 to prospect for wild cocoa in the forest areas of the Maya Mountains in Belize and to establish this material in the Barbados Quarantine Facility for onwards transmission to the ICG,T
"Supporting the global effort to develop better planting materials for farmers and advance our knowledge towards the sustainable growing of cocoa"